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SAT Subject- Biology E/M C-D

Terms

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digestion
the process of breaking down large organic molecules into smaller ones
carbohydrate
an organic compound to which hydrogen and oxygen are attached; the hydrogen and oxygen are in a 2:1 ratio; examples include sugars, starches and cellulose
consumer
organism that consumes food from outside itself instead of producing it
chitin
a white or colorless, amorphous, horny substance that forms part of the outer integument of insects, crustaceans and some other invertebrates; it also occurs in certain fungi
centrosome
a structure in animal cells containing centrioles from which the spindle fibers develop
cell wall
a wall composed of cellulose that is external to the cell membrane in plants; it is primarily involved in support and in the maintenance of proper internal pressure
duodenum
the most anterior portion of the small intestine of vertebrates, adjacent to the stomach; the continuation of the stomach into which the bile duct and pancreatic duct empty
Crustacea
a large class of arthropods, including crabs and lobsters
disaccharide
a sugar composed of two combined monosaccharides
chromatid
one of the two strands that constitute a chromosome; chromatids are held together by the centromere
coelom
the space between the mesodermal layers that forms the body cavity of some animal phyla
conditioning
the association of physical, visceral response with an environmental stimulus with which it is not naturally associated; a learned response
cell wall plate
in mitosis of higher plants, the structure that forms between the divided nuclei of the two daughter cells and eventually becomes the cell wall
cephalic
pertaining to the head
cochlea
the sensory organ of the inner ear of mammals; it is coiled and contains the organ of corti
dendrite
the part of the neuron that transmits impulses to the cell body
cytosine
a nitrogen base that is present in nucleotides and nucleic acids; it is paired with guanine
crossing over
the exchange of parts of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
cretinism
a thyroid deficiency that results in stunted growth and feeblemindedness
chlorophyll
a green pigment that performs essential functions as an electron donor and light "entrapper" in photosynthesis
cleavage
the division in animal cell cytoplasm caused by the pinching in of the cell membrane
contractile vacuole
a specialized structure that controls osmotic pressure by removing water from the cell
carapace
a bony or chitinous case or shield covering the back or part of the back of an animal (shell of a crab)
cation
an ion with a positive charge, or an ion that migrates towards the cathode (negative electrode) in an electric field
carnivore
a flesh-eating animal; a holotrophic animal that subsists on other animals or parts of animals
capillary
a tube one cell thick that carries blood from artery to vein; the site of material exchange between the blood and tissues of the body
circadian rhythms
daily cycles of behavior
cortisone
a hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex
cytoplasm
the living matter of a cell, located between the cell membrane and the nucleus
diencephalon
the hind portion of the forebrain of vertebrates
corpus callosum
a tract of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
coenzyme
an organic cofactor required for enzyme activity
chyme
partially digested food in the stomach
centromere
the place of attachment of the mitotic fiber to the chromosome
cotyledon
a "seed leaf"; responsible for food digestion and storage in plant embryo
climax community
the stable, biotic part of the ecosystem in which populations exist in balance with each other and with the environment
dominance
a dominant allele suppresses the expression of the other member of an allele pair when both members are present
disjunction
the separation of homologous pairs of chromosomes following meiotic synapsis
cortex
in plants, the tissue between the epidermis and the vascular cylinder in the roots and stems of plants; in animals, the outer tissue of some organs
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; found in cell nucleus, its basic unit is the nucleotide; contains coded genetic information; can replicate on the basis of heredity
Coelentrata
an invertebrate animal phylum in which animals possess a single alimentary opening and tentacles with stinging cells
cross-pollination
the pollination of the pistil of one flower with pollen from the stamen of a different flower of the same species
deletion
the loss of all or part of a chromosome
cambium
undifferentiated tissue in the stem of a plant that aids growth in width
central nervous system
encompasses the brain and the spinal cord
deoxyribose
a five carbon sugar that has one oxygen atom less than ribose; a component of DNA
chloroplast
a plastid containing chlorophyll
corpus luteum
a remnant of follicle after ovulation that secretes the hormone progesterone
commensal
describes an organism that lives symbiotically with a host; this host neither benefits nor suffers from the association
cytoskeleton
the organelle that provides mechanical support and carries out motility functions for the cell
cerebrum
the largest portion of the human brain; it is believed to be the center of intelligence, conscious thought and sensation
cloaca
the chamber in the alimentary canal of certain vertebrates located below the large intestine, into which the ureter and reproductive organs empty (as in frogs)
cornea
the outer, transparent layer of the eye
chemotropism
the orientation of cells or organisms in relation to chemical stimuli; the growth or movement response of organisms to chemical stimuli
cerebral hemisphere
one of the paired lateral divisions of the forebrain
colon
the large intestine
Calvin cycle
cycle in photosynthesis that reduces fixed carbon to carbohydrates through the addition of electrons ("dark cycle")
cuticle
a waxy protective layer secreted by the outer surface of plants, insects, etcetera
codominant
the state in which two genetic traits are fully expressed and neither dominates
differentation
a progressive change from which a permanently more mature or advanced state results
chemosynthesis
the process by which carbohydrates are formed through chemical energy; found in bacteria
diffusion
the movement of particles from one place to another as a result of their random motion
dicotyledon
a plant that has two seed leaves or cotyledons
chromosome
a short, stubby rod consisting of chromatin that is found in the nucleus of the cells; contains the genetic or hereditary component of cells (in the form of genes)
dorsal root
the sensory branch of each spinal nerve
diploid
describes cells that have a double set of chromosomes in homologous pairs (2n)
calorie
a unit of heat; the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree centigrade
centriole
the small granular body within the centrosome to which the spindle fibers attach
Chordata
an animal phylum in which all members have a notochord, dorsal nerve cord and pharyngeal gill slits at some embryonic stage; includes the Cephalochordata and the Vertebrates
cytokinesis
a process by which the cytoplasm and the organelles of the cell divide; the final stage of mitosis
chromatin
a nuclear protein of chromosomes that stains readily
cytochrome
a hydrogen carrier containing iron that functions in many cellular processes, including respiration
cerebral cortex
the outer layer of cerebral hemispheres in the forebrain, consisting of gray matter
diastole
the passive, rhythmical expansion or dilation of the cavities of the heart (atria or ventricles) that allows these organs to fill with blood; preceded and followed by systole (contraction)
chorion
the outermost, extra-embryonic membrane of reptiles and birds
carbon cycle
the recycling of carbon from decaying organisms for use in future generations
deamination
the removal of an amino group from an organism, particularly from an amino acid
clotting
the coagulation of blood caused by the rupture of platelets and the interaction of fibrin, fibrinogen, thrombin, prothrombin and calcium ions
cerebellum
the hindbrain region that controls equilibrium and muscular coordination
cyton
the cell body of a neuron
dimorphism
the instance of polymorphism in which there is a difference of form between two members of a species, as between males and females
cone
a cell in the retina that is sensitive to colors and is responsible for color vision
dihybrid
an organism that is heterozygous for two different traits

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