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A Five-Kingdom Survey


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grouping organisms into catergories called taxa/taxons
given a name consisting of a species name and a genus
genus that share related features
related families that are then grouped successively into phyla and finally kingdoms
Kings Play Chess on Fine Green Sand
succesional order of taxa (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species)
order of a name
genus then species
evolutionary relationships of which organization of this is a goal of taxonomy
study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
the phylum for fungi and plants
Kingdom of Prokaryotes
lack nucclei and various organelles of eukaryotes, possess a single naked chromosome of a single DNA molecule without proteins, and the cell walls contain peptidoglycans
present in some prokaryotes, small cirular DNA molecules
ingredient of most prokaryote cell walls
globular protein that makes up Flagella in monera, arranges in helical chains (not 9+2 formation). Prokarytos without flagella move in a corkscrew motion whcile others glide with slimy material
Autotrophic Prokaryotes
manufacture their own organic compounds.
use energy obtained from inorganic substances as in photosynthesis
heterotrophic bacteria that obtains its energy from the living tissues of a host
saprobes or saprophytes
heterotrophs which obtain their energy from dead, decaying matter. Since they contribute to the decay of matter, they are called DECOMPOSERS
Obligate aerobes
prokaryotes that must have oxygen to live
Obligate anaerobes
prokaryotes that can survive only in the absence of oxygen
faculative anaerobe
prokaryote that grows in the presence of oxygen but, when oxygen is absent, can switch to an anaerobic metabolism
disctinct group within the monera and are characterized by the lack of peptidoglycans in cell walls, ribosomes are similar to eukaryotes rather than eubacteria, and plasma membrances contain lipids that differ from those found in plasma membrances of all other organisms
type of archaebacteria which are anaerobic, heterotrophic bacteria that produce methane (CH4). They live in mud, swamps, and the guts of cows, humans, termites, and other animals
Extreme Halophiles
type of archaebacteria (salt lovers) that live in enviroments with high concentrations of salt. They are found in salt lakes or in salted foods where they can cause spoilage. Most are aerobic and heterotrophic while others are anaerobic and photosynthetic with the pigment BACTERIORHODOPSIN
grows as filaments called hyphae. The cell walls consist of chitin and they are either parasites or saprobe, absorbing the breakdown products from the action of digestive enzymes that they secreted. They are dominantly haploid but most form temporary diploid sructures for sexual reproduction
type of pigement found in anerobic and photosynthetic extreme halophiles
hyphae, hypha
filaments of fungi
mycelium, mycelia
a mass of hyphae
type of archaebacteria (heat and acid lovers) that live in hot (60C to 80C) and acid (pH 2 to 4) enviroments. They are found in mineral springs or in thermal volcanic vents on ocean floors. They are chemoautotrophs, using H2S as their source of energy.
a nitrogen containg polysacchride that makes up the cell walls of fungi
"true bacteria" distinct group within the monera that is characterized by their mode of nutrition or how they metbolize resources, some are distinguished by their ability to create endospores, and some are distinguished by their means of motility, andthe cell wall has peptidoglycans
Eubacteria and archaebacteria
two groups within monera
hyphae in many parasitic fungi that penetrate their host
eubacteria- resistant bodies that contain the genetic material and a small amount of cytoplasm surrounded by a durable wall
Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia
Fungi Reproduction
plasmogamy, karyogamy, and meosis, and fungi can also form asexually through budding and asexual spores
Three shapes of eubacteria
cocci, bacilli, spirilla
the fusing of cells from two different fungal strains to produce a single cell with nuclei from both strains. A pair of haploid nuclei, one from each strain, is called a dikaryon
rod shaped
hypha containing a dikaryon
the fusing of the two haploid nuclei of a dikaron to form a single diploid nucleus
Gram Stain Technique
eubacteria that stain postitive have a thick peptidoglycan wall while gran-negative bacteria have a thin peptidogycan wall covered with a layer of lipopolysaccharides
meiosis (fungi)
this restores the haploid condition of the diploid nucleus. Daughter cells develop into haploid spores which germinate and from haploid hyphae
type of eubacteria- are photosynthetic, using cholorophyll a, they also contain phycobilins and some have heerocysts that produce nitrogen-fixing enzymes. It was formerally calle blue-green "algae" but they are prokaryotes not eukaryotes
breaking up of two hyphae in fungal asexual reproduction
the pinching off of a small hyphal outgrowth in asexual fungal reproduction
red accessory pigments of rhodophyta
asexual spores
in fungi, sporangiospres and conodia
specialized cells of cyanobacteria which produce nitrogen-fixing enzymes
nitrogen-fixing enzymes
in cyanobacteria, inorganic unreactive nitrogen gas is converted into ammonia (NH3)
produced in saclike capsules called sporangia (singular, sprorangium) that are each borne on a stalk called a SPORANGIOPHORE, fungi
Chemosynthetic Bacteria
type of eubacteria, autotrophs of whcih some are called nitrifying
asexual reprod. in fungi, formed at the tips of specialzed hyphae, not enclosed inside sacs.
hyphae bearing conidia
refers to some chemosynthetic bacteria which converts nitrite (NO2-) to nitrate (NO3-)
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
type of eubacteria that are heteroptophs that fix nitogen. Many of these have mutualistic relationships with plants. These live in nodules
fungi that lack septa, except when filaments border reproductive filaments. These reproduce sexually by fusion of hyphae from different strains, followed by plasogamy, karyogamy, and meiosis. Typical ZYGOSPRES are produced which germinate into new hyphae. Bread mold is typlical of this
fungi that have septa and reproduce sexually by producing haploid ASCOSPORES. After plasmogamy of hyphae from unlike strains, a dikaryotic hypha produces more filaments by mitosis. Karyogamy and meiosis subsequently occur in terminal hyphal cells producing four haploid cells. These four cells divide by mitosis to produce EIGHT haploid ascospores in a sac called an ASCUS. IN many of these, asci are grouped together in a specialized fruiting body, the ASCOCARO. These include yeasts, powedery mildews, and truffels
when both the bacteria and the host plant benefit from an interdependent relationship , as with nitrogen-fixing bacteria
fungi that have septa and reproduce sexually by producing haploid BASIDIOSPORES. Plasmogamy between two unlike hyphae is followed by mitosis and the growth of dikaryotic hyphae to from a fruiting body called a BASIDIOCARP. A mushroom is an example. Karygamy occurs in terminal hyphal cells called BASIDIA followed by meiosis and the producton of FOUR haploid basidiospores
specialized structures in plant roots where nitogen-fixing bacteria reside
imperfect fungi that is an artificial group comprising fungi for which no sexual reproduction has been observed. Penicillium, from which penicillin is obtained, is one of these
type of eubacteria- coiled bacteria that move with a corkscrew motion. Their flagella are internal, posistioned within the layers of the cell wall
mutualistic associations between funi and algae. The algae is normally a chlorophyta or cyanobacteria and it provides sugar from photosynthesis, and also nitgrogen compounds if they are nitrogen fixing. The fungus (mostly a ascomycete) provides water and protection from the enviroment.
artificial kingdom used for convenience rather than to resent actual evolutionary relationships. Members can be algaelike, animallike, funguslike, unicellular, or multicellular
convergent evolution
features that arose among groups independently, may be seen in kingdom protista
mutualistic associations between fungi and the roots of plants. The plant provides sugars to the fungus while the fungus increases the ability of the roots to absorb waters and minerals, especially PHOSPHORUS
or plantlife members of Protista of which all obtain energy by photosynthesis. All have chlorophyll a but may have various other chlorophylls and different accessory pigments. The main features used to categorize them are their chlorophylls and accessory pigments, the form of carbohydrate used to store energy, the number of flagella (if present) and the make up of the cell walls
algaelike- or euglenoids, have 1-3 flagella at their apical (leading) end. Instead of a cellulose cell wall, they have thin, protein strips called pellicles that wrap over their cell membranes. They can become heterotrophic in the absence of light. Some have an eyespot that permits phototaxis
thin protein strips that wrap over the euglenophyta's cell membrane instead of a cellulose cell wall
the ability to move in response to light, permitted by an eyespot, a characteristic of some euglenophyta
permits phototaxis
or dinoflagellates, algaelike, have two flagella. One flagellum is posterior while the second flagellum is transverse and rests in an encircling mid groove perpendicular to the first flagellum. SOme of these are bioluminescent while others produce nerve toxins that concetrate in filter-feeding shellfish, which then cause illness in humans when eaten
algaelike, or golden algae, are golden yekllow and have one or two apical flagella
algaelike, also called diatms that have tests that concist of silica (SiO2)
shells of diatoms
Algaelike, green algae that has chlorophull a and b, celulose cell walls, and some habve isogamous, anisomagous, or oogamous gametes. There are also examples of trends toward muliticellularity. This is believed to be the ancestor of plants
gametes where both sperm and eggs are motile and equal in size
gametes where the sperm and egg differ in size
gametes where a large egg cell reamins with the parent and is fetilized by a small, motile sperm
algaelike, brown algae, are multicellular and have flagellated sperm cells. Some are giant seaweeds, or kelps
algaelike, red algae, contain red accessory pigments called phycobilins and are multicelluar and their gametes do not have flagella
animal-like protists that are heteotrophs and consume either living cells or dead organic matter
protozoa that are amoebas that move by extensions of their cell body called pseudopodia which encircles gfood and absorbs it by phagocytosis
extensions of rhizopoda that encircle food and absorbs it by phagocytosis
or forams, protozoa that have tests usually made of calcium carbonate. many ancient marine sediments consiting of certain foram tests are good indicators of underlying oil deposits
or zooflagellates, are flagellated protozoa. Some mutualistic species digest cellulose in the guts of termites. Others are parasites, such as Trypanosoma, which is transmitted by the testse fly and causes African sleeping sickness in humans
protozoa whcih are parasites of animals. They have no physical means of motility however they form spores which are dispersed by one or more hosts that participate in the completion of their life cycles. The sporozoan that causes malaria, for example, spends part of its life cycle in mosquitos and partin humans
protozoa that are distinguished by their cilia which they use for moving and other functions. because of specialized structures, such as mouths, anal pores, contractile vacuolesm (for water balance), two kinds of nuclei (one large macronucleus and several small micronuclei) and other features, they are perhaps the MOST COMPLEX of all cells and includes paramecium
protista that resemble fungi because they form either filaments or spore-bearing bodies similar to fungi
fungis like- cellular slime molds that exhibit both funguslike and protozoalike characterists during their life cycle. Spores germinate into amoebas which feed on bacteria. WHen food sources are depleted, the amoebas aggregate into a single unit, which migrates as a slug, then teh individual cells form a stalk with a capsule at the top. Spores are then released, which repeat the cycle when they germinate. The stimulus is cyclic AMP
Cyclic AMP
or cAMP, secreted by the amoebas of cellular slime mods that experience food deprivation and then leads to aggregation
fungus-like, or plasmodial slime molds, grow as a single, spreading mass feeding on decaying vegettion. When food becomes unavailable or when teh enviroment dessiccates, stalks bearing spore capsules form. Haploid spres released from the capsule germinate into haploid amoeboid or flagellated cells, whcih fuse to form a diploid cell. IT then grows into the spreading plasmodium
spreading mass of myyxomycota or plasmodial slime molds
fungus like, includes water molds, downy mildews, and white rusts. They are either parasites or saprobes. They are much like fungi in that they form filaments (hyphae) which secret enzymes that digest the surrounding substances. THe breakdown products of digestion are then absorbed. The filaments lack septa, or cfross walls, whcih in many true fungi partition the filaments into compartments. Theya re coenocytic because they lack septa. Cell walls are also made of cellulos rather than chitin
or cross walls that partition the filaments into compartments in fungi, lacking in oomycota
because this lacks septa, it contains many nuclei within a single cell (oomycota)
Kingdom Plantae
made the transition frmo water to land and prevented the loss of water by dessiaction and water was also required to provide a medium for the fertilization of eggs by flagellated sperm. In addition, once plants emerged from the protective cover of water, genetic material was more susceptible to damage by UV radiation.
Major plant adaptations
dominant generation of all plans is the diploid sprophyte generation which is more apt to survive genetic damage because two copies of each chromosome allow recessive mutations to be masked (except for bryophyta), a cuticle, the development of a vasular system, flagellated sperm in primitive plant systes and also pollen, an ovary in the most advanced division of anthophyta, and soem adaptations to seasonal variations, like being deciduous
a waxy covering on aerial parts of plants that reduces dessiccation
xylem and phloem
part of the vascular system of plants that allowed plants to distribute water throughout itself, xylem is more for water transport while phloem is sugar transport
in anthophyta, where the gametophytes are enclosed
coniferophyta and anthophyta that shed leaves to minimize water loss during slow-growing or dormant seasons.

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