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what is rationalism?
this is the application of human reason the accumulation of knowledge
What is the deductive method of reasoning and who is associated with it?
Descartes is associated with deductive method reasoning. Descartes doubted the evidence of sense experiences. instead he proposed a method of deducing further principles from essential first principles
what is empiricism
This is knowledge based on experience. These ppl accepted the reliability of sense perception
what English philosopher exemplified empiricialism?
Francis Bacon was a great supporter of empiricism. He beleived that knowledge was based on the observation of hard facts. Then, by inductive reasoning conclusions could be reached.
if YOU had to sum up the Enlightenment what would UR definition be
formal definiton:It was a broad intellectual and cultural movement. It sought to make the emerging world of science accessible to the comon man and to enable him to understand his role i nthe world. This would allow him to aid in the formation of a better world. Also they regarded the past as a kind of darkness and saw themselves as progressing into the LIGHT!
The enlightenment proved a challenge against traditions...why?
During the enlightenment more ppl traveled to foreign lands. Ppl reported strange& different cultures w/differennt beliefs. With such differences how could they not challenge accepted what Eur. considered right when so many other ppl thought differently
What English philosopher published a treatise in 1690 that discussed this issue of what was right or wrong
John Locke published his Second Treatise of Civil Government in 1690. In it he laid down the principles of Natural and human rights.
1)right to life
What kind of liberty was Locke talking abt if he was ok with having a king? was he insane?
Locke considered liberty as the right to make choices; to live in one area or to move to a better one, religion etc. All of this could be restricted by the government. But the natural rights of man could not be denied at whim
how did locke suggest that we protect these rights?
First of all in his Social Contract he said that the government existed by the consent of the government and was there to protect our natural rights. He saw the king as the strongest enforcer of this contract. But if it was broken then REBEL!
In what Essay written in 1690 did Locke exemplify the inductive method of Bacon and apply it to the world?
In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) Locke maintianed that environment, education andn social institutions molds the individual for bad or good.
What philosophe wrote the Spirit of Laws (1748) and what was it abt? Did he like absolutism?
Baron Montesquieu wrote the Spirit of the Laws (1748) to show his dismay that absolutism had triumphed. He applied the critical method the government. He focused on promoting liberty through a separation of powers.
what does philosophes mean?
These were French intellectuals. This should be no surprise since the Enlightenment was centered in France& spread to other countries.
Philosophes completely rejected Religion at all costs.
T/F. explain answer
hint: watch? watchmaker?
a few might have rejected religion completely but in general they saw the majesty of the world and were convinced it could not be a result of random chance. They thought the world had been put together by a supreme being who had created the universe and had then left it to run on its own. this was called Deism
ok girls were pretty much excluded from public schools. Does this they were not educated at all?
yes they were. There were private institutions established for the training of ladies in reading, writing, simple math, music etc. In addition to this salons were informal learning centers
The intellectuals were popular. This meant literacy rates improved and with it education. the results of this were?
1)most classes taught in vernacular of the country
2)spelling and grammar became more standardized. Dictionaries appear
3) publishing of texts in vernacular increased.
4)almanacs appeared
5)specialized interest areas were made available
who came up with the concept of the tabula rasa? What does tabula rasa mean?
John Locke referred to the mind as a tabula rasa or a blank slate(experience needed). He rejected Descarted view that ppl are born with their basic ways of thinking (u have have what u is innate)
doyou consider Voltaire(1694-1778) a reformer? What specific novel did he publish in 1753 that led to a reexamination of evidence?
Voltaire is a reformed. For example, in 1752 Calas(French protestant) was falsely accused of murdering his son after learning he wanted to convert to Catholicism.Parliament ordered him executed. In 1753 Voltaire urged for a reexamination of evidence. By 1765 the authorities had reversed their decision but it was too late. This shows how he mixed science with an appeal for better ppl, better treatment and better institutions.
Voltaire was a religious zealot and an extreme optimist. This is reflected thru his book Candide(1759).
F!!Altho eduated by Jesuits Voltaire hated the Catholic church. He despised what he considered its narrowness& bigotry.Candide (1759)was a book abt how ppl cant expect to find happiness by connecting themselves w/a philosophical system. Instead he advocated that one "cultivate one's own garden"
In what way did many Enlightenment authors avoid censorship?what book written in 1721 did Baron Montesquieu write that reflects this sneakiness on part of the philosophers?
In 1721 he wrote Persian Letters. In this he critques France thru letters between two persians traveling in Europe.To avoid royal and church censorship he wrote a highly SATIRICAL work that attacked relious zealots.
what highly neurotic swiss man lived from 1712-1778 and believed in personal freedom,attacked rationalism and civilization as oppressing ppl(odd that he should do this during the Enlightenment)?
Rousseau (1712-1748) was a longer who annoyed other philosophes. i.e. Voltaire who hated his concept of emotion over reason.The leading participants of the radical stage of the French revolution were inspire by The Social Contract (1762)
what was The Social Contract (1762) about?
The Social Contract shows what little faith Rousseau had in an individual's ability to use reason in order to improve life. He said the focus needed to be reforming the overall community. He thought freedom was equated w/popular sovereignty
What book (published in 1762 also) can be said to have influenced the Romantics?
Rouseau helped set the stage for the Romantic movement w/ his novel Emilie (1762). It's abt a young man who receives an education that encourages emo over reason. To achieve this he has to explore nature in order to heighten his emotional sensibility. He also emphasized the developmental differences between kids& adults
Nowadays encyclopedias are common...So what was the big deal about the Encyclopedia that Denis Diderot(1713-1784) come up with?
The encyclopedia was written by the Republic of Letters (international intellectual community that communicated in French). It represents the Enlightenment belief that all knowledge could be organized and represented in a scientific manner.It was vital in spreading Enlightenment ideals beyond France. It also taught ppl to think critically
After abt 1700 the unity of the philosophes began to break. Latter-day philosophers sought originality thru rigid and dogmatic systems. How is this change demonstrated in Paul Holbach?
In 1770 he wrote the System of Nature. Its aggressive atheism represented the intolerance that other philosophes were repelled by. He published it secretly in the Netherlands
Who lived from 1724-1804 and represents the German Enlightenment?
hint: he was aginst empiricism(a view set forth in his
Immanuel Kant shows how far the Enlightenment spread. In his Critique of Pure Reason (1781) he put himself against empiricism. in his opinion the mind shaped the world thru ITS experiences. he also inspired the Romantics by saying that there were possibly hidden layers of knowledge that could not be achieved with reason
Who introduced the idea of Laissez faire and the "invisble hand?"
hint: he was an English economist
Adam Smith (1723-1790) wrote the Wealth of Nations (1776. He argued against mercantilism and was pro laissez faire. He thought such a free economic system would produce an "invisible hand" which would lead to he meeting of supply and demand
Women were prominent in the Enlightenment thru salons. They also aided philosophes in getting their work out to the public. what woman was the mistress of Louis XV and helped Diderot get his Encyclopedia published?
Marquise de pompadour aided Diderot in avoiding censorship and secretly funded the encyclopedia
madame de Geoffrin was married at 15 to an old rich dude who died. What did she do with the inheritance?
French hostess whose salon was an international meeting place of artists and men of letters from 1749-1777(one of the most famous salons). She funded the Encyclopedia
Which female English author(1759-1797) wrote a vindication of the Rights of Woman(1792)?
Mary Wolstone Craft(1759-1797)
wrote that women should enjoy the right to vote and hold political office. This was the first offical and written statement of such ideas. LAter feminists would use her ideas to support their rights.
What did the Marquise du Chatelet(1706-1749) this woman was a genius but she was kept from the Royal Academy of Science due to her gender. What did she do instead?
Although she was very intelligent the beliefs of patriarchal society(women are inferior) made her doubt her abilities. hence she translated Newton's Principa into French further spreading the Scientific Revolution ideas.
How was Catherine the Great an enlightened ruler?
1)she westernized Russia thru her patronage of the Encyclopedia. She imported Western architects, sculptors and intellecturals.
2)communicated w/Voltaire.
3)in domestic reform she tried revising laws. This didnt work out but torture was reduced and she allowed limited religious toleration
4)tried to improve education and local government
5)territorial expansion
6)her personal infatuation w/the Enlightenment allowed its ideals to spread among the Russian aristocracy
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
1)government reduced power of lords over the serfs.
2)she hada administrative reforms that strengthened the royal bureaucracy
I was the son of the militant Fredrick William I. I assumed leadership of the Prussian throne in 1740.
"I" am Frederick II (1740-1786). Also in 1740 Charles VI died leaving Maria Theresa the Habsburg lands. Fredrick attacked her without warning defying the Pragmatic sanction which had guaranteed her succession. This lead to the Seven Years War.
After the Seven Years War Fred ceased to be imperialistic. So what did he do to get labeled as an Enlightened monarch?
5 reasons
1)he aided education
2)allowed freedom of the press
3)laws were simplified so cases could be decided quicker
4)tried to reorganize Prussian economy
5)allowed catholics and jews to settle in Prussia which had previously been Lutheran
Joseph II(1765-1790)
1) issued the Edicts of Toleration granting Jews, Lutherans and calvinists freedom of worship.
2)taxed aristocracy
3)abolished serfdom
Peter the Great
he attempted to turn Russia into a Western nation by using western military and mining technology. he also built St. Petersburg

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