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Hume Reality
empiricist empiricism leads to phenomenalism which leads to skepticism
we can only be aware of appearance or sense data and never of things in themselves
ultimately leads to skepticism, sense perception gives us knowledge to perceive qualities of the substance directly we can only experience the qualities
Hume Bodies
extension of bodies endurance of bodies in time and space
Hume Personality
3 dimensions of human nature: reasonable beings, social beings, and active beings human mind is the sum of total experiences
Hume Knowledge
2 types of perceptions: impressions and ideas(based upon impressions) -causal connection: fool selves into understand cause/effect
Hume Freedom
Hume Morality
virtues are virtues because they are useful and agreeable limited altruist all morality is derived from feelings
limited altruist
normally/naturally care about others some of the time
Hume Society
attacks the social contract theory as both a historian and a philosopher
Hume Religion
doesn\'t take miracles seriously because he believes that things religious committments should be based on more than that argument from design (world is too great of a place to be created by accident) critiques popular religion because he believes that these people are just too unwilling or incapable of thinking critically
Kant Reality
dualist believes in a phenomenal and metaphysical world 4 antimonies: limitation, necessity, causality, and plurality)
Kant Bodies
loves Newton believes that the universal laws of nature govern all phenomena essentially matter is movable in space
Kant Personality
unknowable moral agent 3 sources of mental experience:sense, imagination, apperception human personality exercises rational will humans all have dignity human nature has innate roots in both good and evil
unknowable moral agent
one of most importance, sense of right and wrong, accountable for choices, not a phenomenal object, it\'s a metaphysical reality
Kant Knowledge
reality is factual and informative and non empirical therefore it is universal and necessary sense and time 3 ideas of speculation: soul, cosmos and God ((ideas of pure reason))
Kant Freedom
as personal agents we freely determine our own wills, but as physical bodies we act according to natural laws (dualism) NOT A DETERMINALIST argues using practical reasoning instead of logic postulate of practical reasoning there is a dilemma btw freedom and necessity
Kant Morality
intrinsically good categorical imperitive all persons belong to a spiritual kingdom that is governed by God and has its own moral laws, in addition to a political kingdom/society
categorical imperitive
moral principle that applies unconditionally
Kant Society
never imagines state of nature in social contract theory as fact moral politics are good and necessary political moralism (ends justify the means) political justice peace is important
political justice
tied to freedom, requires that people should do freely what they freely choose to do as long as it hurts no one else , we have the right to exercise our freedome
Kant Religion
there is one true moral religion but this can have many different faiths
Kant Immortality
immortality is not an object of possible knowledge
Kant Fulfillment
happiness is not what is most important, instead moral perfection is
James Reality
7 realms of reality pluralistic meliorism
James\' 7 Realms of Reality
1-sense 2-science 3-relations 4-prejudices 5-heaven and hell 6-indiv. opinion 7-madness and vagary
pluralistic meliorism
the view that the world, however good or bad it may be, can become better if we freely act to help improve it
James Bodies
mind involved in experience conflict between theism and materialism to explain reality
James Personality
def. of psychology sensation precedes perception which precedes belief emotions follow bodily changes, not other way around 3 dimensions of self: material, social, spiritual
James Knowledge
2 types of knowledge: acquaintance and knowledge about tender/tough minded philosopher TENDER=rationalism TOUGH=empiricism sentiment of rationality common sense is most basic and important approach to knowledge
sentiment of rationality
the feeling that things makes sense
James Freedom
4 postulates of rationality freedom is first
James Morality
moral duty=2nd postulate of rationality easy going and strenuous approaches to life
James Society
against imperialism advocate of peace
James Religion
choice to believe or not (genuine option) God=3rd postulate of rationality no evidence for or against God\'s existence God as grand master chess champion know truth and avoid error
James Immortality
4th postulate of rationality the brain dies, but does the consciousness??
James Fulfillment
different people need different things to be happy no natural law for happiness
Mill Reality
phenominalist-can only know reality as phenomena, not the object in itself nature is sum total of phenomena radical empiricist utilitarian
Mill Bodies
all material realities/objecst are permanent possibilities of sensation (ie. Table)
Mill Personality
theory of the mind inexact(psych) and exact(chem) sciences
theory of mind
can only experience through states of consciousness like thoughts and desires
Mill Knowledge
inductive logic which is based on experience causal knowledge is important inference and intuition
Mill Freedom
determinalist (NOT FATALIST) compatiblism
human freedom is compatible with universal determinism
Mill Morality
principle of utility sanctions feeling of duty is innate
Principle of Utility
do what will promote happiness for all people that are affected
Mill Society
principle of liberty freedom of expression importance of individuality equal opportunities for women representative government
Mill Religion
phenominalism is influential God\'s existance can\'t be proven God\'s power is limited
Mill Immortality
non religion v. religious reasons for believing in life after death
Mill Fulfillment
must develop character to fulfill human nature happiness is contextual
Sartre Reality
being in itself v. being for itself
Sartre\'s being in itself
all phenomenal appearances
Sartre\'s being for iteself
Sartre Bodies
body is being in itself consciousness relates to the world trhough the body facticity
all of the things in life that you can\'t control (Ie. birth/death)
Sartre Personality
\"exisistence preceds essense\" we are who we are becaues of actions/decisions we maked determines by the self
Sartre Knowledge
consciousness in seeking knowledge tries to answer/raise questions and must encounter being to try to answer them all truths are subjective
Sartre Freedom
condemned to be free facticity we\'re responsible for how we use our own freedom
Sartre Morality
values imply sme conscious lack of being we make our own values and morals
Sartre Society
being for others interpersonal conflict ((btw person and person is one of conflict))
Sartre Religion
God doesn\'t exist
Sartre Immortality
Doesn\'t believe in it death is the end of consciousness and a necessary part of human facticity
Sartre Fulfillment
different for everyone no preestablished purpose constituting fulfillment
Aquinas Freedom
Human being must have free choice -if no free choice then everything is in vain -everything is not in vain --therefore, we have free choice we have free choice because morality requires it have to have free choice because if we didn\'t then we woudn\'t be accountable for our actions and heaven and hell would be pointless
Hobbes Freedom
no free will everything is determined (determinalism) -everything that happens is determined by causal antecedents
Thales (miletus=640-550 B.C.)
First quarter of the sixth century B.c.



Anaximander (Miletus 611-547 B.C.)
A little later than Thales

The boundless
Circular motion

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