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APES Test 1


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exponential growth
a quantity increases by a fixed percent of the whole in a given time
1. population growth
2. increasing resource use
3. destruction and degradation of wildlife habitats
4. premature extinction of plants and animals
5. poverty
6. pollution
environmental issues we face
2.5 bill
6.1 bill
8 bill
human population in 1950, 2000, 2028
biological scientists studying relationships between living organisms and their environment
environmental scientists
use info from physical and social science to 1. understand how the world works, 2. learn how humans interact with the earth. 3. develop slns to enviro probs
conservation bioligists
created in the 70s as a multidisciplinary science to 1. investigate human impact on biodiversity and 2. develop practical plans for preserving biodiversity
concerned about impact of ppl on enviro quality and believe ppl's actions are degrading their earth. combo of science and social/ ethical beliefs
want to protect undisturbed natural areas from harmful human activities
want to use natual areas and wildlife in ways that sustain them
want to restore areas hurt by humans
biological science studying relationships between living organisms and environment
environmental science
interdisciplinary science using ecology, bio, chem, geology, economics, politics, and ethics to 1. help us understand how world works, 2. learn how we are affecting the enviro, 3. propose slns to probs
solar capital
sun energy
natural capital
air, water, soil, wildlife, minerals
natural resource
water purification, recycling, pest control
solar energy
direct sunlight as well as wind power, hydropower, biomass
basic needs
food, air, water, shelter, income, respectable and safe work, health care, rec, cultural opps, education, freedom from physical danger
environmentally sustainable society
provides basic needs without depleting resources
living sustainably
living off natural income without depleting natl capital
rule of 70
70/ % growth rate = doubling time in years
world popltn growth rate
95% projected popltn growthq
in developing contries
20% (1.2 bill) ppl have
high per capita income
25% (1.5 bill) ppl have
low income, less than $1/day
30% (1.8 bill) ppl have
low income ($2-3/day)
poor people have kids to
1. help grow food
2. gather fuel
3. tend livestock
4. work
5. beg in streets
6. help them survive in old age
how many people die/ yr from malnutrition, disease caused by susceptibility because of malnutrition, drinking contaminated water
10 million
ecological resource
anything an organism needs for normal maintenance, growth, reproduction
economic resource
anything from enviro to meet human needs and wants
perpetual resource
sun energy
renewable resource
flow resources like forests, grassland, animals, good water and air and soil
sustainable yield
highest rate you can use renewable resources without depleting them
nonrenewable resources
energy resources, metallic mineral (recyclable), nonmetallic mineral (hard to recycle)
option when a resource is economically depleted
1. try to find more
2. recycle/ resuse what you have
3. waste kess
4. use less
5. develop a substitute
6. wait millions of years to more
any addition to air, water, soil, food threatening health, survial, or activities of ppl or living organisms
from people
point sources
smokestack, drain pipe, exhaust pipe
non pt sources
runoff, sprayed pesticides
pollution prevention/ input control
recudes/ eliminates production of pollutants (refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle)
pollution cleanup/output control
clean up pollutants after produced. this is only temporary and the trash has to go somewhere else. too costly
number of people, acerage resrouce use/ person, enviro effects of techno used to provide/ consume each unit of resource
planetary management worldview
humans can and should manage planet mostly for their own benefit.
we are most important species (apart from nature), resources are unlimited because of science and techno, economic growth increases human well being and the potential for economic growth is unlimited, success depends on how well humans can understand, contro, manage earth for our own benefits
environmental wisdom worldview
wea re part of nature, resources are limited and should not be wasted, some techno is good an some bad, success depends on learning how earth works/ adapts, integrating environmental wisdom into way s we think/act
enviro sustainability revolution
polltn cleanup -> prevention
waste disposal -> prevention/ redxn
protecting species -> protecting habitats
enviro degradation -> enviro restoration
increased resource use -> more effient resource use
popltn grown -> popltn stabilization
using taxes to prevent polltn:
forces businesses to invent new techno for polltn contro, redesign process for polltn prevention
anything with mass and takes up space (solids, liquids, gas)
distinctive building blocks of matter kaking up every material substance
2+ elements held together in fixed proportions by attractive forces called chem bonds
elements, compounds, or both
electrically charged atoms or combo of atoms
combo of 2+ atoms of same/ different elements held together by chem bonds
nitrogen and oxygen
99% of the air you breathe
lower part of stratosphere
atomic #
number of p
mass #
number of n+p
same atomic #, different mass#
concentration of H+ in water sln
pH less than 7
pH greater than 7
10 fold increase in acidity
each whole number drop in pH
water a --- compound
covalent, molecular
organic compounds
hydrocarbons (methane, CH4)
chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT, C14H9Cl5)
chloroflourocarbons (CFCs, Freon12)
simple carbs (simple sugars)
monomers with chemical bonds (complex carbs, proteins, nucleic acids)
specific sequence of nucleotides in dna
complete set of genes (100,000 in human body)
red blood cells
have no nucleus
number of cells in human body
100 trillion
how many genes/cell
matter quality
usefulness of a form of matter. availability and concentration
high quality matter
organized, concentrated, near surface of earth
material efficiency/ resrouce productivity
total amount of material needed per unit of goods and services
% of matter resources in developed countries making useful goods/ services
2-6%, could be improved to 75-90%
capacity to do work/ transfer heat
matter movement
kinetic energy
wind, streams, heat flow between bodoes. electricity, electromagnetic radiation, heat, temperature
pollution must be
burned, buried, cleaned and used as fertilizer
how harmful is a pollutant
consider chem nature, concentration, persistence
degradable (non persistent)
ex. sewage
can be broken down by natural phys, chem, bio processes.
biodegradable polltn
persistent (slowly degradable)
decades to degrade
ex. ddt, plastics
non degradable
ex. lead, mercury
1st law of energy
conservation of energy and mass
2nd law of energy
5% useful light
energy efficiency/ productivity
how much useful work is accomplished by a particular energy input into a system
high throuput economies
high waste. attempt every increasing economic growth by increasing flow of matter and energy resources through an economic system
matter recycling economy
low throughput/ low waste
reuse/ recycle
use resources no faster than replenished
use resources effiently
reduce unnecessary consumption
polltn prevention, waste redxn
control popltn growth
hunter gatherer time period
12,000 years ago
agricultural revolution
10000-12000 years ago
industrial revolution
275 yrs ago
info and globalization revltn
50 yrs ago
hunter gatherers knew
where to find water
how plant availability changes seasonally
can eat plants and animals and use as medicine
how animals migrate
hunter gatherer enviro impact small b/c
small popltn
low resource use
no tecnho
industrial revltn energy use switch
renewable power sources like wood and water to nonrenewable power sources like fossil fuels
frontier environmental worldview
american settlers. see land as wilderness to be conquered by clearing and planting
Homestead Act of 1862
each qualified settler in Great plains given 160 acres free land
frontier officially closed
Henry David Thoreau
walden pond. life in the woods
George Perkins Marsh
man and nature
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
establishes responsibility of the fed govt for protecting public lands
John Muir founded
the sierra club in 1892. preservationist movement.
Golden Age of Concservation
1901-1909, Teddy Roosevelt uses presidential power to designate wildlife refuges.
Pelican Island
1st wildlife refuge designated by Teddy Roosevelt in 1903
Grand Canyon
first of 16 national parks
US Bureau of Reclamation
est by Teddy Roosevelt
US Forest Service
created by congress in 1905 and headed by Gifford Pinchot
Hetch Hetchy Valley
Yosemite, wise use/ conservationist (roosevelt and pinchot) v. preservationist (muir)
National Park Service Act
passed 1916, Woodrow Wilson. Parks are to be maintained in a manner which leaves them unimpaired for future generations
est. national park service (dept of interior)
idea is to encourage tourist visits with private concessionaires
Lake Merritt, CA
1870, first official wildlife refuge
Yellowstone and American Forestry Assoc (private citizens)
remaining bison given refuge in yellowstone
Timber cutting banned on public land
Lacey Act
1900, bans interstate shipment of birds killed in violation of state laws
Reclamation act
1902, promotes irrigation and water development in arid West
US Forest Service, Audubon Society
Antiquities Act
1906, allows prez to set aside fed lands as natl monuments
Pure food and drug act
Weeks Act
1911, Forest Service can purchase land at headwaters of navigable streams as part of the natl forest system
Public health services act
1912, govt can investigate water polltn
Ecological Society of America
Migratory Bird Act
1918, restricts hunting
Public health boards est in most cities
Conservationists damn Tuolomne R in Hetch Hetchy Valley to supply San Francisco with drinking water
1901-1913, Pinchot and Phelan
Wilderness Society
1935, founded by Robert Marsahll and Aldo Leopold
country's first influential expert in industrial medicine
Allison Hamilton
Civilian Conservation Corps
1933, plant trees.
develop/ maintain parks and rec areas.
restore silted waterways
build levees and dams for flood control
control soil erosion
protect wildlife
organization of petroleum exporting countries
Soil Conservation Act
1935, est. soil erosion service, soil conservation service, natl resources conservation service
Silent Spring
published by Rachel Carson in 1962
Apollo Mission
1969, spaceship-eart environmental worldview
first decade of the environment
1974 oil price spike
double digit inflation in us
high interest rates
high international debt
global economic recession
opec reduced oil exports and bans oil to us b/c
us supported israel in 18 day yom kippur war with egypt and syria
1979 oil drop
iran's islamic revltn
opec formed
Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuala
Jimmy Carter
creates dept of energy
creates superfun as part of comprehensive enviro response, compensation, and liability act of 1980. uses antiquities act to triple land in natl wilderness system, coubles area of natl park system
Fedl Land policy and management act
gives bureau of land management power in 1978
Sagebrush Rebellion
1980s, ranchers, miners, loggers, development, farmers, elected officials. in response to fed land policy and management act
Wise Use movement
4 big 20th century enviro issues
climate change, econosystem and economic disruption from global warming
increased water shortages and conflict over water supplies in local and regional areas
continued popltn growth
continued biodiversity loss
major goals of us enviro orgs
focus on big probs
protect an additonal 40 mill hectares (100 mill acres)
end commercial forests. use for rec and conservation
halt urban sprawl
build public support
build pro enviro group in congress
use poltics to phase out harmful govt enviro subsidies
A Sand County Almanac
Aldo Leopold
Taylor Grazing Act
Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act
Wildlife Restoration Act
1937, levies fed tax on guns and ammunitions sales. money goes to wildlife research and protection
US Fish and Wildlife service
1940. manage natl wildlife refuges
Fed Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
Air Poltn disaster at Donora Pennsyvania
1948. kills 20, sickens 7000
Atomic Energy Act
Water Poltn Control Act
Price Anderson Act
1957. limits liability of plant owners and governments in major nuke power plant accidents
Clean Air Act
1963. 300 deaths in nyc from air pltn
Wilderness ACt. Natl wilderness sytem
Land and WAter Conservation Act
poltn of lake erie closes beaches
The Population Bomb
Paul Ehrlich 1968
Tragedy of the Commons
Garret Handen, 1968
Cuyahoga R in ohio burns for 8 days
oil leaks in cali close beaches
The Closing Circle
Barry Commoner, 1971
1st earth day
1970. established by nixon and senator gaylord nelson
Resources Recovery Act
First bottle recycling law
1972, oregon
Earth Island Institute
1972, David Brower
ED enviro pesticide control act
limits to growth published
ocean dumping act
marine protection, research, and sanctuaries act
coastal zone management act
marine mammal protection act
consumer product safety act
UN conference on human enviro
lead based paint poisoning act
World watch institute
Lester Brown, 1974
Safe Drinking Water ACt
sherwood roland and mario molina
cfcs are depleting ozone. 1974
energy policy and conservation act
natl forest management act
toxic control substances act
resource conservation and reconvery act
noise control act
clean water act
surface mining control and reclamation act
the soft energy path
amory b lovins 1977
Love Canal, NY
comprehensive enviro responibility, compensation, and liability act (superfund)
Alaska natl interest lands conservation act
first state of the world report
lester r brown 1984
chernobyl, ukraine
times beach evacuated because of dioxin contamination
montreal protocal
halve ozone depleting cfcs, 1987
exxon valdez
in alaska's prince william sound 1989
natl enviro education act
persian gulf war
moratorium on mining in antarctica for 50 yrs
natl ppl of color summit to promote enviro justice
ecology of commerce
paul hawken 1993
un conference on popltn and development
Cali desert protection act
Our stolen future
hormone disrupting chems, theo coburn 1996
kyoto protocol (161 nations)
first animals to invade land and air
most successful, diverse, abundant animals
surrounded by membrane, distinct, membrane bound nucleus, internal parts (organelles)
all bacteria are one celled prokaryotes. surrounded by membrane.
organisms resembling each other in appearance, behavior, chemistry, genetic makeup
how many species on earth? excluding bacteria?
50-100 mill, 10-14 mill
biologists have named and ide-ed
1.8 mill species (not including bacteria)
42% insects
15% plants
biologists who id and catalogue species
group of interacting individuals of the same species occupying a specific area at the same time. vary slightly in genetic make up (genetic diversity).
change in size, age distribution, density, genetic composition
where a popltn normally lives
biological community
popltns of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving enviro of matter and energy
portion of earth in which biotic organisms exist.
hydrosphere, parts of lower atmosphere and upper lithosphere
troposphere and stratosphere
inner layer extending 17 km above sea level with most of planet's air
17-48 km above earths surface
liquid water (surface and underground), ice, water vapor in atmosphere
earth's crust and upper mantle
bacteria, protozoa, fungi, yeasts
foods processed by microbes
bread, cheese, yogurt, vinegar, tofu, soy sauce, beer, wine
antibiotics produced by microbes
penicillin, erythromycin, streptocycin
what sustains life on earth?
one way flow of high quality solar energy through materials and living things in feeding interactions, into environment as low quality energy (heat), back into space as heat.
cycling of matter through biosphere
stuff the sun does
lights and wamrs the planet
powers matter cycling
drives climate and weather systems
earth receives how much of sun's energy?
i billionth
warms troposphere, evaporates water, generates winds
the sun is made up of
72% hydrogen and 28%helium
terrestrial large regions characterized by a distinct climate and specific life forms, esp vegetaion, adapted to it
ecosystems merge in these transitional zones
water air nutrients solar energy
living, plants, animals, microorganisms
range of tolerance
popltn in ecosystem has this about variations in physical/ chem enviro. all have optimum level/range
terrestrial key factors
sunlight , temp, precip, wind, latitude, altitude, fire grequency, soil
key factors in aquatic life zones
light pentration, water currents, dissolved nutrient concentrations, suspended solids, salinity.
sea is 3.4% salt by weight.
law of tolerance
tolerance limits beyond which no member of a species can survive. least tolerant in juvenile and reproductive stages of life cycle
limiting factor principle
some limiting factor will be most important in limiting popltn growth. this can change through the life cycle. often water or some mineral
complete set of chem rxns for cells/ organisms that capture or transfrom matter and energy from enviro to supplu needs for survival, growth, reproduction
autotrophs- self feeders. ex. phytoplankton
photosynthesize glucose
plants without sunlight. bacteria from simple compounds from thier environment. in ocean, producer bacteria use geothermal energy
primary consumers living on producers
feed on other consumers. feed only on herbivores=2ndary consumers. other carnivores=tertiary consumers
pigs, rats, foxes, bears, cockroaches, humans. eat plants and animals
vultures, flies, hyencas, some sharks and ants
feed on dead organisms
detritus feeders
crabs, carpenter antrs, termites, earthworms
extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter in leaf litter, plant debris, and animal dung
bacertia and fungi
recycle organic matter in ecosystems by biodegrading dead organic materal (detritus) for nutrients and releasing resulting simpler inroganic compounds into soil and water to be used as nutrients by producers
detritus feeders and decomposers
live on detritus

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