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Development Psych


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Stepping newborn baby reflex.
Hold infant underarms & permit bare feet to touch falt surfaces. Infants lift one foot after another in stepping response. Disappears at 2 months. Function: prepares infant for voluntary walking.
Proximodistal pattern of dev'p.
An organized pattern of physical growth & motor control that proceeds from the centre of the body outward.
Bowlby's Ethological Theory of Attachment.
Views infant's emotional tie to the familiar caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival. According to Bowlby the infant's response to parents begin as a set of innate signals that call the adult to the baby's side. Overtime, a true affectionate bond dev'ps. B sees this as having strong biological roots.
Describe the 2nd stage of prenatal dev'p.
2) Embryonic
2nd to 8th week.
-rapid differentiation of major body systems. Organ dev'p
-particularly vulnerable time to influence upon prenatal enviro. Impaired dev'p here is major and permanant. Nature provides no future opportunity to make such damage up.
Plantar newborn baby reflex.
Toes curl under to finger- press against the ball of the foot.
Describe the General to specific pattern of dev'p.
Large motor movements dev'p befreo finer motor movements do.
Describe Bowlby's "Attachment in the making" stage of attachment dev'p.
(6wks to 6-8mnths)
Infants start to respond differently to a familar caregiver than to a stranger. Infant's dev'p expectation that a caregiver will respond when signalled. Babies still do not protest when seperated from parent, despite the fact that they can distingush them from other people.
When does dev'p begin?
Body Righting newborn baby reflex.
Rotate shoulder or hips. Rest of body turns in the same direction. Disappears at 12 months. Supports postural control.
Babinski's newborn baby reflex.
Toes fan out & curl as foot twists in, given a sole stroke from toe to heel. Disappears b/w 8-12 mnth(Function unknown)
What happens if the mother is not present during the critical imprinting time?
If the mother is not present at this time, but an object resembling her in important features is, the young bird may imprint onto the other object. Lorenz dev'ped this as he observed young geese seperated fromm their mother imprinted on him.
List the 3 prenatal stages.
Rooting newborn baby reflex.
Stroke cheek near the corner of mouth. Head turns toward source of stimulation. Up until 3 weeks & then it becomes voluntary.
Function:to help infant find the nipple.
Three Patterns of Dev'p?
1) Cephalocaudal Trend
2) Proximodistal
3) General to specific
Infants show what types of perceptual preferences?
Infants prefer patterned rather than unpatterned stimuli.
Specific pattern preferances include: 1) pattern of mothers face over random face patterns. Curved over straight lines; Connected over disconnected elements; Novelty over familarity.
How does the vernix stick?
Lanugo is a white downy hair and appears over the fetus's entire body to help the vernix stick.
Sucking newborn baby reflex.
Place finger in the infants mouth & infant will suck the finger rhythmically. This reflex is permanent.
Function: to permit feeding.
Describe the strange situation test?
Developed by Mary Ainsworth who worked with Bowlby. Procedure involved short seperation from mom & reunions with the parent to assess quality of attachment bond. Most widely used technique for measuring quality of attachment b/w 1-2 yrs of age.
Drive Reduction Model (Early theory of attachment)
Behaviorist view regards the mom's ability to satisfy the baby's hunger (primary drive) is the basis for the infant's preference for her (the secondary drive).
Flaw:From Harlow's monkey study we now know that hunger is not the primary drive.
Research Methods used by dev'pmental psychologists.
Eyeblink newborn baby reflex.
Shine bright light near eyes or clap hand near the head. Infant quickly closes eyes. This is permenant. Function: to protect infant from strong stimulation.
Resistant Attachment
The quality of insecure attachment characterizing children who remain close to parent before departure & display angry resistant behavior when she returns (10-15%)
What is the critical period relative to imprinting?
A relatively restricted time pd. in an ind's dev'p during which a particular form of learning can best occur.
Hess found that the optimal time for imprinting mallard ducks is within the 1st 18 hours after hatching. After 30hrs they can not be imprinted at all.
Describe how the Naturalistic
approach is used to study development.
Method of Tinbergan & Lorenz observing child in natural habitat.
Large #'s of kids are watched simulataneously and these obs yeild such info as avg. age to walk, talk, etc.
Palmar grasp newborn baby reflex.
Spontaneous grasp to objects touching hands or fingers. Disappears at 3-4 months.
Function: prepares infant for voluntary grasping.
Four types of attachment styles revealed through strange situation experiements.
Secure, avoidant, resistant, and disorganzed/disoriented.
Operant Conditioning Model (Early theory of attachment)
Behaviorists view that regards the mother's contigent reinforcement of the baby's social behavior as the basis for the infant's preference for her.
Flaw: cannot fully account for the formation of attachment bond. Attachment behaviors occur even under conditions of serious maltreatment.
Describe the 1st stage of prenatal dev'p.
fertilization to 2 weeks
-rapid cell dividsion
-implantation on uterine wall
-placenta begins to form.
Tonic Neck newborn baby reflex.
While baby lies on back, turn head to one side. Infants assume a "fencing position"-one arm is extended in front of the eyes on side to which head is turned, other arm is flexed.
Disappears after 4 months
Function:May prepare infant for voluntary reaching.
Avoidant attachment
Characterizes children who are usually not distressed by parental seperation & who avoid the parent when they return (20%).
A behav pattern that promotes survival. Ethologist's term for a relatively sudden & irreversable form learning that can occur only during some critical period of the ind's dev'p. Lorenz & Tinbergen obsed in baby birds. Imprinting ensures that young will stay close to mother. Imprinting takes place during an early, restricted time of dev'p.
Describe the 3rd stage of prenatal dev'p.
3) Fetal
-8 weeks to birth
-includes 3 trimesters and involves very rapid growth of the organism.
Withdrawl newborn baby reflex.
Prick soul of foot with pin.
Foot withdraws & flexion of knee & hip. Weakens after 10 days.
Function: protects infant from unpleasant tactile stimulation.
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
Quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who respond in a confused, contradictory fashion when reunited with parents. Seem to reflect greatest insecurity 5-10% of babies.
Bowlby's 4 phases of attachment development.
1)Preattachment(birth to 6wks)
2)Attachment in the making(6wks to 6-8mnths)
3)Phase of clear cut attachment (6-8mnths to 18mnths-2yrs)
4)Formation of a Reciprocal Relationship (18mnths-2yrs and onwards)
Describe how the cross-sectional method is used to study development.
Children at various ages are compared simultaneously.
Moro's newborn baby reflex.
Hold infant horizontally on back & let the head drop slightly or produce a sudden loud sound against the surface supporting the infant.
Infant makes an "embracing" motion of arching back, extending legs, throwing arms outward & then bringing them toward the body.
-disappears at 6 months
In the past it may have helped the infant cling to the mother.
Secure attachment type.
Characterizes children who are distressed by parental seperations & easily comforted when the parent returns. (65%)
Describe Bowlby's Preattachment stage of attachment dev'p.
(0-6wks) Built in signals (grasping, smiling, crying) that help bring the newborns in close contact with others. Infants can recognise the mom's smell and voice. Not yet attached to mom, because they don't mind being left with a familar adult.
Can a child born in the 2nd tri survive?
No, lungs are still too immature & brain not dev'ped enough to control breathing and body temp.
Describe Bowlby's "phase of clear-cut attachment" stage of attachment dev'p
6-8mnths to 18mnths-2yrs
Attachment to caregiver is evident.
Seperation Anxiety=infant's distressed reaction to the departure of a familar caregiver.Suggests infants have a clear understanding that a caregiver continues to exist when not in view. Occurs b/w 8-15 mnths.
Stable individual differences in quality & intensity of emotional reactions
Describe Bowlby's "Formation of a Reciprocal Relationship" stage of attachment dev'p.
(18mnths-2yrs and onwards)
Seperation protests decrease.
According to B, out of their experiences during these increased phases, kids construct an enduring affectionate tie to caregiver that permits them to use the attachment figure as a secure base across time and distance. Internal representation of the parent-child bond serves as an internal working model.
Experimental approach.
Children may be grouped according to age etc, and then compared on a specific skill, or physicality. Most structured approach.
What is vernix?
In the 2nd tri the fetus becomes coated with vernix-a white cheese-like substance that protects the skin from chapping.
Any enviro agents that causes damage during prenatal period.
Describe Trimester 3 of the Fetal Stage of prenatal dev'p.
Tri 3: 20wks-birth
Age of viability b/w 22-26weeks.
Cerebral cortex enlarges. Fetus responds more clearly to the external enviro. Fat dev'ps.
In the last weeks the fetus assumes an upside-down position.
Clinical Method
Came into prominence with Piaget. W/ this method the agenda is nolonger strictly the child's b/c specific questions are left open ended and responses are carefully studied. Piaget used this response to explore the previously ignore thought processes of the child.
Describe how the Longitidinal
method is used to study development.
The same group of children will be studied over extended periods of time.
Babies born to heroin, methodane, and cocaine users have what types of problems?
Low birth weight, prematurity, physical defects, breathing difficulties, death around the time of birth.
Cries are abnormally shrill & piercing. During the 1st year babies are less attentive to enviro & moto dev'p.
Describe Trimester 2 of the Fetal Stage of prenatal dev'p.
Tri 2: 17th to 20th wks
-mov'ts can now be felt by the mom. Baby coated with vernix.
By the end of 2nd tri many organs are well dev'ped. Major milestone reached by brain-all neurons are now in place. No more will be produced in the childs life time.
Describe Trimester 1 of the Fetal Stage of prenatal dev'p.
Tri #1: 9th-17th wk
-extraordinary rate of body growth
-in 3rd mnth organs, muscles, & NS begins to become organized and connected
By 12th wk external genitals formed. Fingers, toes, nose and eyelids appear. Lungs begin to expand and contract.
1st trimester over at the end of the 3rd mnth.
How do pharmeceuticals taken by mother effect prenatal dev'p?
Although prescribed by a doctor, studies have found that pain medication given during labor (in larger doses) have been correlated with sluggish, less animated infant behavior during the first few weeks of life. This has a common effect of hindering the parent-infant bond. In addition, these children have been found to have poor motor coordination and cognitive deficits up to a year old.
Cephalocaudal pattern of dev'p.
An organized pattern of physical growth & motor control that proceeds from head to tail (top-down). Motor control of the head is achieved before control of the arms and trunk. Control of the arms and trunk are achieved before control of the legs.

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