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Alternative explanation
A potential alternative cause of an observed relationship between variables
Applied research
Research conducted to address practical problems and potential solutions
An alternative to the scientific method of acquiring knowledge where we accepting anything learned from supposed authority figures like books, government, media
Basic research
Research that attempts to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behaviour
Covariation of cause and effect
Observing that a change in one variable is accompanied by a change in a second variable
Use of objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behaviour
Capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods. Good scientific ideas are falsifiable.
Goals of scientific research
The 4 goals of it

1. To describe behaviour

2. To predict behaviour

3. To determine the cause of behaviour

4. To understand or explain behaviour

Unquestioning acceptance of what your personal judgement or single story about one person's experience tells you about the world.
Peer review
The process of judging the scientific merit of research through review by peers of the researcher (other scientists with experience in that field)
Program evaluation
Research designed to evaluate programs that are designed to produce certain changes or outcomes in a target population
Claims that are made on the basis of evidence that is designed to appear scientific, such evidence is not based on the principles of the scientific method.
To repeat a research study to determine whether the results can be duplicated.
Scientific skepticism
The concept that ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results from scientific investigations
Temporal precedence
The cause precedes the effect in time sequence.
The section of a research report that summarizes the entire study
The section of a research report in which the researcher considers the research results from various perspectives
The principle that a good scientific idea or theory should be capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods
A statement that makes an assertion about what is true in a particular situation

Often a statement that two or more variables are related to another one

The section of a research report in which the researcher outlines the problem that has been investigated
Literature review
A narrative summary of the research that has been conducted on a particular topic
The section of a research report in which the research provides information about exactly how the study was conducted, including any details necessary for the reader to replicate or repeat the study
The scientific principle stating that if two theories are equally effective at explaining a phenomenon, the simpler of the two theories is preferable
A statement that makes an assertion concerning what will occur in a particular research investigation
The American psychological association's searchable computer database system that includes coverage of journal publications from the 1800s to the present
The section of a research report in which the researcher presents the findings
A framework that attempts to organize and explain various findings relating to a particular phenomenon and in doing so generates new testable hypotheses about that phenomenon
Web of Science
A searchable database that allows searches for articles that cite a particular older article
In research, data are anonymous when, once collected, a researcher is completely unable to identify the participant who provided the data
Belmont Report
An american report from 1978 that outlined the ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research
Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC)
A Canadian organization responsible for setting standards for the ethical treatment of animals in research and ensuring that they are upheld
Concern for welfare
Principle that research should have beneficial effects while minimizing any harmful effects
A person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actually part of the experiment
Principle that information is kept private

Disclosure is limited only to the minimum number of people necessary

Explanation of the purposes of the research that is given to participants following their participation in the research
Any time a research misleads participants into believing something about the study that is not true
Ethics Code
Documents created by research organizations and nations that offer guidance to researchers and professional for ensuring the safety and welfare of research participants
Exempt research
Research in which there is absolutely no risk, and thus may be exempt from REB review
Informed consent
In research ethics, the principle that participants in an experiment be informed in advance of all aspects of the research that might influence their decision to participate
Justice (TCPS)
Principle that all individuals and group should have fair and equal access to the benefits of research participation as well as potential risks of research participation
Minimal risk research
Research that involves no greater risk to participants than they would encounter in their daily lives
The intentional or unintentional use of another person's work without adequately indicating the source
Research Ethics Board (REB)
An ethics review committee established to review research proposals within a university. The REB is composed of scientists, non-scientists, and legal experts.
Respect for persons (TCPS)
Principle that all individuals should have the free and informed choice to participate in a study or not
Risk-benefit analysis
A researcher's or REB's evaluation of the potential hazards of conducting a study, weighted against the potential benefits to participants and to society.
Three Rs
In animal research, the principles of replacement (avoid using animals if possible), reduction (minimize the numbers of animals used), and refinement (modify procedures to minimize distress).
Tri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS)
In Canada, the official statement of ethical conduct for research involving humans; researchers and institutions are expected to adhere to this document to receive federal research funds.
Confounding variable
An uncontrolled variable that is impossible to separate from a variable of interest. In an experiment, the experimental groups differ on both the independent variable and the confounding variable, making conclusions about the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable impossible.
Correlation coefficient
An index of how strongly two variables are related to each other.
Curvilinear relationship
A relationship in which increases in the values of the first variable are accompanied by both increases and decreases in the values of the second variable
Dependent variable
The variable that is the participant's response to, and dependent on, the level of the manipulated independent variable
Experimental control
A feature of strong experimental designs. Occurs when only the precise independent variable varies across condition; all other features of the experiment are the same across conditions.
Experimental method
A method of determining whether variables are related, in which the researcher manipulates the independent variable and controls all other variables either by randomization or by direct experimental control
Field experiment
An experiment that is conducted in a natural setting rather than in a laboratory setting
Independent variable
The variable that is manipulated to observe its effect on the dependent variable
Internal validity
The certainty with which results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than to some other, confounding variable.
Mediating variable
A psychological process that occurs between an event and a behavioural response
Negative linear relationship
A relationship in which increases in the values of the first variable are accompanied by decreases in the values of the second variable
Non-experimental method (Correlational method)
Use of measurement of variables to determine whether variables are related to one another
Operational definition
Definition of a concept that specifies the operation used to measure or manipulate the concept
Participant variable
A term sometimes used to denote a variable that groups participants on some pre-existing characteristics. For example, sex, ethnicity.

It is often treated as an independent variable in experimental designs, despite the lack of ransom assignment.

Positive linear relationship
A relationship in which increases in the values of the first variable are accompanied by increases in the values of the second variable
Random assignment
Controlling for the effects of extraneous variables by ensuring that participants in an experiment are assigned to condition in manner determined entirely by chance.
Response variable
Operational definitions that involve recording participant's reaction to some event.

For example reaction time, attitudes, choice, action

Situational variable
A characteristic of some event or environment.

For example lighting conditions, question wording, a confederate's actions

Third-variable problem
When describing the relationship between two variables, a third variable is any other variable that is extraneous to the two variables of interest.

True experiments control for the possible influence of third variables

Any event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies

Has at least two values

Concurrent validity
Extent to which the conclusions about the relationships among variables reached on the basis of the data are correct
Construct validity
The degreee to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure
Content validity
An indicator of construct validity of a measure in which the content of the measure is compared to the universe of content that defines the construct
Convergent validity
The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the extent to which scores on the measure are related to scores on other measures of the same construct or similar constructs
Cronbach’s alpha
An indicator of internal consistency reliability assessed by examining the average correlation of each item (question) in a measure with every other question
Discriminant validity
The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the extent to which scores on the measure are not related to scores on conceptually unrelated measures
Face validity
The degree to which a measurement device appears to accurately measure a variable
Internal consistency reliability
Reliability assessed with data collected at one point in time with multiples measures of a psychological construct. A measure is reliable when the multiple measures provide similar results.
Interrater reliability
An indicator of reliability that examines the agreement of observations made by two or more rates (judges)
Interval scale
A scale of measurement in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size
Measurement error
The degree to which a measurement deviates from the true score value
Nominal scale
A scale of measurement with two or more categories that have no numerical (less than, greater than) properties
Ordinal scale
A scale of measurement in which the measurement categories form a rank order along a continuum
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
A type of correlation coefficient used with interval and ratio scale data. In addition to providing information on the strength of relationship between two variables, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient indicates the direction (positive or negative) of the relationship
Predictive validity
The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the ability of the measure to predict a future behaviour
Ratio scale
A scale of measurement in which there is an absolute zero point, indicating an absence of the variable being measured. An implication is that ratios of numbers on the scale can be formed (generally, these are physical measures such as weight or times measures such as duration or reaction time).
A problem of measurement in which the measure changes the behaviour being observed
Test-retest reliability
A reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on a measure given at one time with scores on the same measure given at a later time
True score
An individual's actual score on a variable being measured, as opposed to the score the individual obtained on the measure itself
The intentional misrepresentation of any aspect of research (e.d. data, analyses, participants)
External validity
Extent to which the results can be generalized to other populations and settings
The degree to which a measure is consistent

Measured by variance of true score (T)/Variance of the measure (X)

The explicit study of how people think, feel, and behave
Why do we use the scientific method?
Because methods we use to understand concepts are subject to numerous limitations
Why is science important?
It provides an objective set of rules for gathering, evaluating and reporting information
Elimination of plausible alternative explanations
Nothing other than causal variable could be responsible for observed effect. No other plausible explanation.
The three points that make causality valid?
1. Temporal Precedence

2. Covariation

3. Elimination of plausible alternative explanations

Which is better basic or applied research?
The two are great because scientific progress depends on both
When is deception allowed?
When there is very minimal risk and if it wouldn't affect the person's decision to participate in the study
What are the guidance principles of the Tri-Council Policy?
1. Respect for Persons

2. Concern for Welfare

3. Justice

What are the ethical considerations in human research?
1. Beneficence

2. Informed consent

3. Deception

What are the 4 elements of a good hypothesis?
1. Logical

2. Testable

3. Refutable

4. Positive

Logical Hypothesis
A hypothesis founded in theory or developed from past study results
Testable Hypothesis
Should be able to observe and measure all important variables
Refutable hypothesis
Must be able to falsify predictions that stem from hypothesis
Positive hypothesis
States a relationship exists between 2 variables
What are the 4 categories of variables?
1. Situational variables

2. Response variables

3. Participant variables

4. Mediating variables

What are the 4 types of relationships between variables?
1. Positive relationship

2. Negative relationship

3. Curvilinear relationship

4. No relationship

Causality must be ________ and ________.
Sufficient and Necessary
The cause is the sufficient condition for the occurrence of the effect

Example: If X is regularly followed by Y then X is sufficient for Y to occur and could be the cause

Cause must be present for the effect to occur

Example: If Y never occurs without X the X is necessary for Y to occur

When do we use randomization?
When the variables cannot be held constant
Truth and accurate representation of information
Theory of reliability
Measures that are valid are always reliable

But measures that are reliable are not always valid

Estimation of reliability is always between _ and _.

If a reliability is .6 what does that mean?

It is always between 0 and 1.

It means 60% of scores are attributed to true score and 40% to error.

Split-half reliability
A measure of consistency where a test is split in two and the scores for each half of the test is compared with one another.
- Item-total correlation
An item-total correlation test is performed to check if any item in the set of tests is inconsistent with the averaged behaviour of the others, and thus can be discarded.
1. Confirmation bias and discounting problem(SLOPE)
Tendency to seek out information that is consistent with our expectations and discount information that is inconsistent
2. Inferences may be based on very little data -(SLOPE)
Sometimes you have an experience that influences your opinion on a group of people
3. Influence of expectations (SLOPE)
We interpret things the way we expect to see them
4. Baserates/Comparisons often absent (SLOPE)
If we don't know much about a group from the beginning we don't know if it is a placebo effect or exam or anything else

Example: Stress going down after giving a drug but maybe the stress went down because exams were over

5. Pleasant truths (SLOPE)
A tendency to believe things that feel right or make us feel good
6. Overreliance on intuition (SLOPE)
To have a hunch or feeling about something
7. Authority figures (SLOPE)
Someone who is very convincing or official looking can make you believe them about whatever
How to cite within text with authors?
One author just use their name and put brackets with the year after their name

Two authors use both names and put the bracket with the year

Three or more authors put all of them and the year in bracket but after you can use et al.

How to cite after the sentence
One author use brackets with name comma then year.

Two authors the same thing but use &

Three or more use all of their names then the year but after you can use et al.

How to cite with no author?
Put the first two or three words or the title then comma with the year
How to cite with more than one piece of work in one sentence?
Use the semi colon and put it in alphabetical order

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