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GWA 201 Midterm


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First Image
Individual level of analysis focused on individuals in power learn how a state will act based on leaders
Great Man Theory
history is made by important world leaders. foreign policy revolves around great people changing history. FIRST IMAGE
Cognitive Theory
how people think and make decisions FIRST IMAGE
Second Image
state/unit level of analysis look at internal dynamics of a state standard operating procedures regime type economic system
Third Image
Systems level analysis follows rationalism to predict state behavior (states will act rationally to survive in an anarchic system)
no authority above the level of the state
Thomas Hobbes
world of scarcity and therefore there is a state of competition world of self-help FIRST IMAGE
wrote The Prince society's impact on the individual. eliminate the bad within societies by using the power of the state, state must violate what is considered good in order to get rid of the bad. the ends justify the means THIRD IMAGE
John Locke
state of nature is one of plenty, no competition cooperation establish rules to enhance cooperation FIRST IMAGE
society establishes rules and norms of behavior, whether formalized or not. rules shape and constrain behavior THIRD IMAGE
system of sovereign states acting in a condition of anarchy - competitive order relies on the distribution of POWER main actors: nation-states Hobbes orientation
cooperative anarchy w/ elements of order importance of power is minimized bc of cooperation actors: nation-states, IOs Use IOs to facilitate cooperation between states
Carl Marx Workers of the world unite and revolt actors: nation-state and non-state actors wealth is concentrated in the hands of the elite war is created by the wealthy looking for new opportunities
Dependency Theory
underdevelopment in Latin America is caused by unequal economic relationships between industrialized and non-industrialized states.
Establishment of sovereignty
1648- Peace of Westphalia Kings determine the religion of subjects and has control over internal matters without interference from other states
Political actor that has sovereignty and a recognized government. highest form of political authority and organization. requirements: territory, population, recognition, organization Ex: Canada, Iraq
group of culturally and historically similar people who feel they should govern themselves ex: Taiwan
a politically organized territory that recognizes no higher authority and whose population politically identifies with that entity ex: Japan
International Actors
States Intergovernmental Organizations Nongovernmental Organizations Terrorists Multinational Corporations Social Movements
Intergovernmental Organizations recognized by liberals created to facilitate cooperation ex: EU, UN, World Bank, NATO
Nongovernmental Organizations privately funded to reduce governmental influence ex: Amnesty International, Red Cross recognized by Liberals
Multinational Corportations
total revenue exceeds GDP of some countries influence political processes bc of investments and desire for stability ex: GM, Microsoft recognized by Liberals and Marxists
Rule of Politics
Capital is a coward hates risk
geopolitical analysis
systems distribution of state size, military capabilities, economic capabilities, population and resources.
Dangerous Dyads
states that are paired together and are more inclined to engage in military conflicts
World System
a set of units or elements that are interconnected so that changes in some elements or their relations produce changes in other parts
a relationship between states in which changes or events in one part produce changes in another
Fallacy of Composition
failure to recognize the irreducibility of the systems emergent properties. The fallacy of inferring from the fact that every part of a whole has a given property, that the whole also has that property.
some states are more powerful than others. result of distribution of capabilities
Current distribution of power/capabilites
Unipolar: US
Sphere of Influence
when a strong state can dominate or heavily influence the policies of other states
continuity in the fundamental pattern of interactions
formal structure, written treaty
group of states that band together informly for a certain time frame to accomplish a mutual goal
nonalignment movement
1960-1990 attempt by developing countries to prevent having to join in the cold war
balance of power
movement of alliance and coalitions among states so that no grouping of states is stronger than another grouping: helps maintain stability
when one state is willing and able to determine and maintain the essential rules by which relations among states are governed
How to achieve Hegemony
control over resources control over states
Relationship between hegemony and regimes
hegemony was created through regimes
sets of implicit or explicit principles, norms, values, rules and decision making procedures around which actors' expectations converge in an area of intl relations. stand above domestic law
Approaches to Rational decision making
maximize benefits, limit costs make assumptions about rationality and follow the reasoning to a logical end
Approaches to Psychological Profiling
understand leader's psyche hard to obtain timely info on current leaders cant generalize findings to other leaders
Approaches to Political Psychology
studies how individual behavior deviates from rational behavior general model of human decision making when certain conditions hold true
Limitations on Rationality
people know their interests and preferences, but these are different for everyone rationality is subjective, it depends on the perception of the situation
Bounded Rationality
people are too busy to devote an extraordinary amount of time to seeking perfect info
search for info until one finds the first adequate solution or explanaion
making a big decision is too tough, so instead people make a series of smaller ones
Crisis decision making
stress and time constraints cause impaired attention, increased cognitive rigidity and a shortened outcome perspective
Limits on Cognition
1. over estimate one's importance 2. others are more hostile that us 3. overestimate one's clarity 4. recognize patterns 5. pre-existing beliefs 6. learning from history
Second Image looks at
Types of states (democracy, autocracy, totalitarian) Structure of States (Federalism, Unitary)
Presidential System
Executive power is separate from legislative branch, gives the president a high degree of policy independence but potentially shallow support
Parliamentary System
Foreign policy executive is a member of the legislative branch and belongs to the majority party.
Public Access to State
1. Marxist - foreign policy is a reflection of the interests of the wealthy 2. Pluralist - everyone has access to the government through interest groups and lobbyists 3. public opinion vs elite opinion - some approaches say that public opinion can influence decisions of representatives, going against public opinion will cause a decrease in support
Standard Operating Procedures
bureaucracies operate on routines and set clear rules in order to create automatic responses to stimuli
Types of Sovereignty
1. Internal - refers to a states ability to control what happens inside its borders 2. External - refers to a states ability to act like a state in relation to others in a system 3. Functional - refers to a states ability to successfully act upon its interests and preferences 4. Judicial - refers to a states legal right to act upon its interests and preferences
1. ability to get others to do what they would otherwise not do 2. ability to achieve ones goals despite opposition
Sources of Power
Resources Authority Motivation Skill
Types of Power
A. Force: offense/ defense & deterrence/coercion B. Influence - negative/positive
1. absence of preparation for war or the serious expectation of war 2. a situation in which the probability of war is so small, that it doesnt really enter into the calculations of states involved
Negative Peace
a situation in which conflict is not taking place, but is being suppressed through deterrence or fear of violent retribution
Positive Peace
absence of conflict and the elimination of structural deprivation and violence
Structural Violence
violence that does not hurt or kill through weaponry, but through social structures that produce poverty, death and enormous suffering. May be political, repressive, economic and exploitative, it occurs when the social order directly or indirectly causes human suffering and death.
Democratic Peace
two democracies have never gone to war with one another, however they do fight wars- just not with each other
Assumptions of Democratic Peace
democracies derive their sovereignty from the people. gov policy is the legitimate will of the people. democracies compromise. democracies trade heavily with one another.
Asymmetric Warfare
act of using lower cost, lower tech weapons to neutralize or defeat an enemy's power/weaponery
respects the boundaries and legitimacy of individual political communities
believes in the universality of humanity and innate rights in addition to state obligations. all people are equal regardless of territories/boundaries
Types of World Ordering
A. Interstate bargaining and negotiations B. World Federalism C. Integration - create 1 large world state D. Functionalism - creating a network of IOs to meet basic human needs

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