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Tech Midterm


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How long is the AIA test of time?
25 Years
What was le-Duc's theory of restoration?
He wanted to restore things back to the way they "should have been". Meaning, disney-fying things.
What organization did le-Duc organize?
Commission des Monuments Historiques
What was Ruskin's theory of preservation?
That you could never restore anything to it's original, so you have to just let it decay and do some maintenance.
What was Morris' theory of preservation?
He was moderate - believed in the center of Ruskin and le-Duc.
What organization did Morris found, and when?
Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings in 1877
Summarize the eastern view of preservation.
That nothing is a monument until it isn't used anymore.
Name the SPAB Principles.
Repair, not restoration. Responsible methods. Compliment not parody. Regular maintenance. Information - understanding the history of a building. Essential Work Integrity. Fit new to old. Workmanship. Materials. Respect for age.
Name the 3 major causes of decay in buildings.
Gravity, man made actions, and climatic/environmental effects.
Name the 3 natural agents of deterioration.
Natural disasters, climatic (temperature, moisture, sun), biological (fungus, molds, etc.)
Name the human factors of deterioration.
Neglect, inappropriate treatment, industrialization, and collateral damage - solving 1 problem and creating another.
What is Anamnesis? What does it translate as?
The complete history of a building. Comes from the word to remind/recall.
Which of the SoI standards allow for an addition?
Which SoI standard do commercial redevelopers use?
Describe the steps that the ICOMOS recommends for the analysis, conservation, and structural restoration of architectural heritage.
Anamnesis -> Diagnosis -> Therapy -> Controls
When do you have to follow the SoI's standards?
Only if you are using federal/state funds through the tax credit program.
From least invasive to most, describe the SoI standards hierarchy of intervention.
Preservation, Rehabilitation, Restoration, Reconstruction
When deciding which of the 4 SoI standards to use, what key factors should you consider?
Physical condition of the property, intended use of the property, financial resources available, and gov't regulations/restrictions.
Describe the SoI standard of PRESERVATION.
Concept of maintaining what has happened over time. Preserving historic character of all periods – not valuing one period over another. Stabilize, consolidate, and conserve existing buildings.
Which of the 4 SoI standards is most commonly used?
Which of the 4 SoT standards allows for an addition?
Describe the SoI standard of REHABILITATION.
Look at a building's character defining features and maintain them. You have to have a certain respect for the building.
Describe the SoI standard of RESTORATION.
Not taken on very often. You have to select the period of significance - 1 point in time - and restore it to then. Key to successful restoration is doing your homework and knowing the entire history of the building. Only have to keep elements from that part of the history, can remove other features.
Describe the SoI standard of RECONSTRUCTION.
Very rarely used, only when you want to rebuild a building for an education/other use. You shouldn't conjecture, you should have real information.
Name the 3 basic features of a building.
Style, Form, Structure
What two elements of a building's form do you look at to know how a building is put together?
Elevation and Footprint.
What is a linear plan?
A plan with units 1 room wide.
What is a massed plan?
A plan with units more than 1 room wide.
What are compound plans and when did they develop?
They are a combination of linear and massed, such as L-plans, t-plans, and U-plans. They became common in the latter half of the 19th century until today.
What are the three innovations that helped increase the variety of shapes available?
Massed plans Heating systems Irregular Shapes
What was the most important innovation in increasing the variety of house shapes?
The evolution of the heating system - getting heat across the whole house.
When was type A of the cut nail produced?
c. 1790 - 1830
How did the 1st machines that could make nails cut them?
With a flat iron like a guillotine.
Which wall frame system was the first to really rely on nails?
The Braced Frame system.
Which wall system comes about at the same time of the saw lumber mill?
Braced Frame Wall System.
Describe the Braced Frame Wall system.
Used late 18th/early 19th century. High quantities in smaller pieces of wood. No formalized sizes. Is horizontal in nature. Smaller pieces have to be nailed in.
When and where was balloon framing developed?
1830s, Chicago
How is Balloon Framing constructed?
Several smaller pieces nailed together. With all vertical pieces from roof to the floor.
What does post and girt mean?
Post = the vertical pieces, while girt is the major horizontal pieces.
Describe the post and girt wall system.
Building style that came from Europe, dates to middle ages. All put together without nails, uses pegs as a fastening system. All handcut, which means its very labor intensive.
Describe some set backs in using the horizontal log system.
Pretty limited in the size and scale of what you can build. Logs tend to shrink over time. And really not a permanent structure.
When was type B of the cut nail produced?
c. 1820 - 1900
When was mass production of nails started?
With the type B in c. 1820, but really with the wire cut.
When was the wire cut nail produced?
c. 1890 to the present.
How are wire cut nails produced?
With a long wire that cuts the nail.
o Name the parts of the building from the ground up.
Foundation, Wall Construction, Roof Construction.
What is missing in 18th and 19th century foundations?
Name the foundation types.
Point, line, and plane.
Describe how a plane foundation works.
A series of posts with framing system and floor joints.
Describe how a perimeter line foundation works.
You build a heavy wall/square and build walls on top.
Which of the three foundation types is not typically used in historic architecture?
List the wood wall systems from earliest to latest.
Horizontal log. Post and Girt. Braced Frame. Balloon Framing. Platform (or Western) Framing.
Where do horizontal log wall systems typically fail?
Through the notches, they collect water.
What is nogging?
A mud and straw combination that is used as a mortar in horizontal log wall systems.
Describe the invention of the Franklin/Pennsylvania/Ritterhouse Stove.
Created a cast iron insert into the fireplace, so that the heat source radiates 360 degrees. Allowed the fire to come out into the room.
Discuss the freestanding stove.
They only needed small chimneys. There was no complexity in getting the property flow, so you could set it in the center of a room. There would be approx. 3-4 stoves in one house.
How do upfeed hot water systems work?
Had a pump at the boiler, pressure sucked cold out, then hot sucked in.
How do Gravity Feed systems work?
Hot water rises, then gravity pulls down the cold, allowing the heat to rise.
Which of the two systems (upfeed or gravity feed) was more efficient?
Upfeed. The gravity feed system required lots of water and a bit boiler.
What did the invention of the central system of heating do for house design?
Allows for lots of flexibility in having many rooms in the house.
How did irregular house shapes come about?
The invention of the nail. It made the ability of doing corners much easier.
When were the earliest nails produced?
c. 1800
How were the earliest nails produced?
They were hand wrought, you can see hammerhead marks. Normally by a blacksmiths apprentice.
Describe the invention of the Rumford Fireplace.
Was designed in latter part of 18th century. He looked at the physics of heat and created a much shallower with sharply angled walls fireplace. Made a big difference.
How was Balloon Framing made possible? (What inventions?)
Saw mills and nails.
How does the platform framing wall system work?
o Build walls on the 1st floor, build a 1st floor deck, then build 2nd floor walls, build a 2nd floor deck, then continue the cycle⬦
When is the Platform Framing Wall System used in construction?
Starting late 19th century, used throughout 20th century. Used for almost all construction post WWII.
What are the pre-industrial types of masonry?
Brick, Stone, and Adobe
What are the post-industrial masonry types?
terra cotta, fired clay tile, and concrete masonry units (CMU)
When was cement introduced in the US?
Name the types of masonry construction.
Gravity Structural and Non-Structural Reinforced Construction Veneered Systems
In historical buildings, what happens to masonry walls as you get higher?
The walls get thinner.
Why are bricks offset and use patterns?
It helps lock them together, give a distribution of the load, which will help keep the building structurally stable.
What is the size of a standard brick?
4" deep and 8" wide
How many thick of brick do you have to have?
How are structural lintels made?
With a concrete block, you want to make a monolithic piece that can include steel.
What is a CMU?
Concrete Masonry Unit
How is brick used in most houses today?
As a veneer system, it's simply used as an aesthetic element. No structural element.
Name the 3 types of residential roofs.
Principle Rafter System Common Rafter System Truss System
Describe the use of the Principle Rafter Roof System.
For only Post & Grit frames or Braced frame houses. The roof lines up with the main posts.
Describe the use of the Common Rafter System.
All held together with nails. Not 1 system/piece more important than the other - the idea that its a system working together.
Which of the roof systems is the most stable and structurally safe?
Truss System
Describe the characteristics of the Truss System.
With the triangle, you can span a greater distance. There are many different kinds of truss configurations. They can span much larger distances than before. Doesn't limit your roof size.
In Commercial Architecture, what is the problem in using balloon and platform framing?
Limits the size and scale of what you can do.
What was the biggest invention and advancement in construction in the 19th century?
The introduction of metals.
What was iron used for early on in buildings?
Cast iron - molding posts and interior structural members.
What are two early buildings that used iron as a structural member in their balcony?
Chestnut Street Theatre in Philly and Christ Church in DC.
Why is cast iron important?
It performs very well in compression. Has minor properties in tension and sheer. Noncombustible. Can mold and shape. Can be massed produced.
When did iron become economically feasible to use in construction?
With the invention of the blast furnace.
When and where was the blast furnace developed?
England in 1790s.
How does a blast furnace work?
Take iron ore, limestone, and coke and burn it to get a purified iron.
What is pig iron?
Result of a blast furnace. It is a raw block of iron you can melt down and cast.
When were the earliest cast iron facades?
About the 1830s.
Who is the father of cast iron facades?
James Bogardus
What did James Bogardus patent?
A fully prefab iron construction building, all the pieces are bolted together.
Why did cast iron facades never become successful?
The structural property of iron is not good with tension.
When did engineers start doing buildings?
The 19th century.
What is arch welding?
A type of welding that helps meld/weld things together with a strong connection.
How are rolling beams produced?
By taking a bar of iron, heating it up really hot so its malleable, the you roll/push it through rollers which allows you to slowly change its profile.
How does rolling iron over time make it stronger?
It happens at the molecular level, with the breaking down of bonds and compacting them together, it makes the iron stronger and more consistent.
Who is credited with the first American I-Beam?
Cooper and Hewitt in Wheeling, WV at the Customs House, 1856.
What did the establishment of the Association of American Steel Manufacturers do for steel?
It standardized steel production, they all decided on specific shapes. Competition and steel prices come down.
What is a Bessemer converter?
A way to fabricate steel from iron. You melt the iron and infuse it with air.
What is the S-Shape?
American Standard Beam
What is the W-Shape?
Wide Flange Beam
How do you make steel columns?
You build up columns by bolting several beams together.
What is the H-Column?
A steel column that has a stronger width.
Who developed the break system for the elevator?
What were early elevators run by?
When was the electric gear elevator introduced?
What did Otis develop that allowed elevators to go faster and taller?
A gearless traction elevator.
When was the American Society of Civil Engineers established?
When and where was the 1st steel skeletal building built?
Home Insurance Building in Chicago, built 1881-85

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