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World History Chapter 28

Terms

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Art Must Serve Politics
What quote did Stalin insist of Russian artists and writers?
Secret Police
Nicholas II was a weak and ineffectual man and blocked attempts to limit his authority; who did he rely on to enforce his will?
Loyalists to the czar, anyone formerly suppressed by the czar
After the Bolshevik Revolution, civil war raged for 3 years between reds and whites; what people made up the 'Whites'? What groups joined the Reds?
Bolshevik group Communists
Ended private ownership and distributed lands to peasants, workers got control of factories and mines, and a new flag; red with an entwined hammer and sickle; What group represented this? What did the Bolshevik's change their name too?
Suspicion, cheka
Brutality was very common; Communists launched their own reign of terror, with their own secret police; executed people on just ____. What was the name of their secret police?
The youth
After the Russian Revolution, schools were built everywhere; in addition to basic skills, love of Stalin, collective farming's glory, atheism, and outside school programs; sports, cultural activities, political classes; Who was taught all these in school?
Red Guards, Winter Palace
In 1917, the government launched a bad offense against Germany; So, in 1917, Bolshevik squads attacked the provisional government; In Petrograd, they entered the palace, and no blood was shed. What are the Bolshevik squads called? What Palace did they enter?
Agriculture, Kulaks
Stalin also brought ___ under government control; Stalin made peasants give up plots, and set up collectives; they could keep houses and belongings, but tools, animals, and crops had to go; people rebelled, and dealt with harshly; Whom did Stalin seek to destroy the most?
War Communism
Communists adopted a policy where they took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads; peasants had to deliver surplus and peasant laborers were drafted into the military or factory work;
Whites
The Allied powers intervened in the civil war; what side did they take? They didn't do very much help;
Show trials, Great Purge 1934
Stalin launched a reign of terror where he cracked down on Old Bolsheviks, party activists from early days, army heroes, industrial managers, writers, and ordinary citizens; Killed nations military officers, which would come in handy during WWII; what were held in between 36-38 in Moscow? What was this reign of terror called and what year?
Small, New Economic Policy NEP
1921 Lenin retreats from war communism and picks up a new policy; Under party control, factory and mine output had fallen, peasants stopped making grain, so he adopted a new one allowing some capitalist ventures; state kept control of banks, foreign trade, large industries; __ businesses could open; also stopped squeezing peasants for grain; peasants held onto small plots of land and sold their surplus crops; to Lenin, policy was temporary; What was the policy called?
Cheap, low
Stan's five Year Plans production goals were too high; managers were worried about meeting the quota, so what quality were the things that came out? Between 28-39 hydroelectric power stations and industrial complexes were built; mining expanded, railroads built; not many people had much to show for sacrifices; How was their standard of living?
Communist Internation, or Comintern
Soviet Foreign policy; Lenin formed a group that aided revolutionary groups around the world and urged colonial people to rise against imperialist powers; what was the name? (2 names)
Propaganda, Pravda
Radios and loudspeakers blared into factories and villages, movie theaters, and schools, citizens heard about communist successes and evils of capitalism; Newsreels and newspapers showed bumper harvests and new hydroelectric dams opening; What method do these all give an example of? What was Stalin's Newspaper called? Means truth
Kremlin
The Bolsheviks quickly seized powr in other cities; in Moscow, it took 1 week of fighting to blast the government of the former czarist center of government; The Bolsheviks took it as their headquarters; what was it called?
Equal
Under communists women were (equal, less, more) than men.
Supreme Soviet, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR or Soviet Union
in 1922, the Communists produced a constitution that was both democratic and socialist; it set up an elected legislature; What was it renamed later? Citizens over 18 can vote, political power, resources, means of production belong to workers and peasants, and renamed Russia; What was Russia's new name?
5 Year Plan
Stalin gains power in 1928; he starts new plans; they're aimed at heavy industry, improving transportation and increasing farm output; all economic activity under government control, and developed command economy; What was this plan called?
Nationalism
What was fired up after the break of WWI in 1914?
Russian Empire
In 1914, what empire stretched from Eastern Europe to the Pacific Ocean?
Petrograd, the Bread Riots
By 1917, fuel shortages, disasters on battlefields, food shortages - all brought monarchy to collapse; In St. Petersburg workers went on strike. What was St. Petersburg renamed? What did this strike become known as? The czar abdicated, and Duma politicians set up a provisional government.
Soviets, Bolsheviks, Vladimir Lenin
In cities, revolutionists set up councils of workers and soldiers; what are these called? At first, they'd work democratically but before long what group of socialists took charge? Who led them?
Corrupt bureaucracy and overburdened court system
What two things added to the problems of the government?
Peace, land, and Bread
In November, him and his friend Trotsky promised the Russian people a change; What was the quote that the Bolshevik's used?
1921, millions
By what year did the Communists win? How many dead?
Muslims, own texts and shrines - Lenin's tomb
Targeted Russian Orthodox Church (supported czars), Catholics, Jewish, banned Hebrew, Islam discouraged; 1 group living in Soivet Union usually faced fewer restrictions; Soviet Union wanted support among the colonized people in the Middle East; What religion wasn't so restricted? What replaced sacred texts and religious icons?
Communist Party
In theory, the Soviet union was a multinational state, but reality was different; Instead of the people, who reigned supreme? They used secret police; largest republic, so it dominated all others
Ancient Rome
Trotsky turned the army into a fighting force; Used former czarist officers under the watch of commissars; If your squad performed poorly, Trotsky shot every 10th man. Who did he borrow that technique from?
Social change, constitution
Czar made reforms under pressure, but too few eased crisis; the elected Duma had no real power; Moderates pressed for 2 things. What were they?
"Red Scare", Britain
The Comintern's propaganda, formed by Lenin, made western powers suspicious of the Soviet union; this lead to a movement in the US where the population feared Bolshevik takeover, what is it called? What country broke relations when SU revealed schemes to turn a strike into a revolution?
Members of the new elite
Best apartments, vacation homes, shop at special stores, good shoes - who has all these things in the totalitarian state in Russia under Stalin's rule?
Benefits, standard of living
Free education, free medicare, free daycare for kids, inexpensive housing, public recreations; What is this a list of in Russia's totalitarian government for the normal class? What still remained low in society, though?
Marxists
During this time, what beliefs were trying to be ignited among the proletariats? To outwit government spies, revolutionaries worked in secrecy under rigid discipline;
Alexandra, czarina and Gregory Rasputin
World War I quickly strained Russian resources; in a patriotic gesture, Nicholas II went to the head of the military; who'd he leave in charge? Who'd she trust?
Censorship
Stalin forced socialist realism; Stalin had strict __ of work; stalin died in 1953
Stalin
Secret police, censorship, violent purges, terror - to ensure obedience under what ruler in Russia?
Middle and Urban working class
Russia was dominated by landowning nobles, priests, and an autocratic czar; Much of the peasant population had poverty; What 2 classes were emerging in Russia, as it began to industrialize?
Members of communist party; industrial managers, military leaders, scientists,
Who was the new elite group in the totalitarian government during Stalin's time?

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