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Praxis 2 ELA, 0014

Terms

undefined, object
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sentence fragment
does not express a complete thought
Epic
long heroic poem, novel, or similar work of art (celebrating the feats of a hero); ADJ: (of stories or events) resembling an epic; grand
Colon
a punctuation mark (:) used after a word introducing a series or an example or an explanation (or after the salutation of a business letter)
Simile
a common figure of speech that explicitly compares two things usually considered different. Most similes are introduced by like or as. "The snow was like a blanket."
Commas
seperate items in a series,seperate two or more adjectives preceding a noun, and before and , but , or, nor, for, and yet when they join independent clauses
Complication
An event or action in a work of literature that serves to intensify and develop the conflict.
Limited third person narrator
a narrator outside the story tells the tale, but focuses on telling it from the perspective of one main character. This narrator knows everything about all the characters and their problems, but again, only focuses on one main character.
Word choice
Effective writers can communicate clearly with a careful choice of words.
Suspense
is the quality of a short story, novel, play or narrative poem that makes the reader or audience incertain or tense about the outcome of events
Fairy Tale
an imaginary children's story.
Perspective
the attitude of the narrator of the story.
Prose
ordinary language.
Myth
ancient belief often involving traditional stories about gods and heroes and is not true.
run-on sentence
When two independent-clauses are joined incorrectly.
Dialect
a variety of language confined to a geographical region or a group o peoples.
Imagery
the mental pictures created by a piece of writing; using words that appeal to the senses of sight, smell,taste, hearing, or touch.
Professional journal article
the author is an expert, scholar, a professional, or a professor. The article usually has been edited by outside scholars.
Characterization
Characterization is the process by which a writer makes that character seem real to the reader.
narration
Writing that tells a story, or the act of telling a story.
Novel
a extended fictional work in prose
comma splice
two sentences joined incorrectly with only a comma
Personification
to represent something as a human being (anthropomorphically means having human quality).
Essay
a short piece of writing on one subject, usually presenting the author's own views.
Tone
Tone is the author's attitude, stated or implied, toward a subject.
antagonist
The principal character in opposition to the protagonist or hero of a narrative or drama.
Historical fiction
a fictional story based on actual events in history.
Metaphor
a comparison of one thing to another WITHOUT the use of "like" or "as". For example, "All the world's a stage, And all men and women merely players" compares the world to a stage
Tragedy
a serious drama in which a central character, the protagonist, meets with disaster either through some personal fault or through unavoidable circumstances.
Crisis
rising action or tension that leads to the climax.
Folk Tale
traditional stories and legends, transmitted orally from generation to generation.
News articles
articles that report news.
Autobiography
a literary work about the writer's own life. Typically, an autobiography is NOT written in the third person; it is usually written in the first person.
Third person narrator/Omniscient narrator
a narrator outside the story tells the tale. This narrator knows everything about all the characters and their problems.
clause
A clause is a part of a sentence that could be a sentence itself.
Comedy
a work (play, story, novel, or film) that ends happily for the main character and contains some degree of humor. It may involve unhappy outcomes for some of the characters: Shylock in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice
Biography
the story of someone's life.
Fable
has a moral and teaches a lesson.
Climax or turning point
occurs when the forces of the protagonist and the antagonist meet head on. The climax is the result of the crisis. Sometimes occurs the moment the rising action changes to the falling action.
Mystery
a work of fiction, a drama, or a film dealing with a puzzling crime
Book review
a critical review of a book.
Conflict
opposition in a work of drama or fiction between characters or forces (especially an opposition that motivates the development of the plot)
Euphemism
substituting a mild, indirect, or vague term for one considered harsh, blunt, or offensive. For example, saying she passed on instead of she died.
Allegory
a story in which figures and actions are symbols of general truths. In other words, a story that has a deeper or more general meaning in addition to its surface meaning.
Fantasy
fictional work containing a large amount of fantasy.
Theme
an idea about life revealed in a work of literature. Theme does NOT equal subject.
foil
a character who provides a contrast to the protagonist.
Jargon
terminology specific to an occupation or hobby.
Semicolon
a punctuation mark (';') used to connect independent clauses
Book on a research topic or other issue
a book who's main theme is the topic of research.
Science fiction
a work of FICTION that uses scientific discoveries or advanced technology, either actual or
protagonist
the principal character in a work of fiction
Rising action
the major part of the plot that usually presents some form of conflict
Nursery Rhyme
traditionally told or sung to small children; they have lively and slightly unpredictable meter, regular rhyme schemes and involves playful, nonsense situations.
Legend
a story handed down from generation to generation.
First person narrator:
one of the characters tells the story using the pronoun "I." We only know what this character thinks, feels, and observes.
Adventure story
a story of an adventure; a synonym would be a "heroic tale."
Hyperbole
an exaggerated, extravagant expression. "The mile-high ice cream cone."
Setting
the time and place of a story. The setting refers to the environment, the physical place and time in which the story takes place.
exposition
gives background information.
Short Story
a short peice of fiction having only a few characters
Arthurian legend
an English legend.
Comprehension of nonfiction
Identify the main idea, primary hypothesis, or primary purpose. Evaluate the clarity of the information. Identify the author's point of view or perspective. Make valid inferences or conclusions based on selection from the work. Identify, where appropriate, an author's appeal to reason, appeal to emotion, or appeal to authority. Evaluate the relationship between stated generalizations and actual evidence.Evaluate the organization of a selection. Does each example have a paragraph? For informational texts, evaluate the effectiveness of their organizational and graphic aids.
reflexively
when the speaker is both the subject and object of the sentence.
Foreshadowing
to hint or suggest beforehand.
Epilogue
a short speech or passage at the end of a literary work.
Oxymoron
two contradictory words that are used together for effect: "sweet sorrow."
Political speech
a speech given by a politician, or a supporter of a politician, to try and convince the audience of the politician's particular point of view.
Play
a literary work written for performance on the stage; a drama
Slang
informal, nonstandard vocabulary.
Editorial
an article in a newspaper or magazine expressing the opinion of the editor or publisher.
Realistic fiction
imaginative writing that accurately reflects life as it has been lived in the past or could be lived
Symbol
an object or name that stands for something else
Plot
the story that is told in a novel or play or movie etc.

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