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History Final: Chapter 24

Terms

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Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Hailing to public demand, Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890. The Act forbade combinations in restraint of trade without any distinction between "good" trusts and "bad" trusts. The law proved ineffective because it contained legal loopholes and it made all large trusts suffer, not just bad ones.
Vertical integration
Carnegie used the tactic of "vertical integration" to combine all phases of manufacturing into one organization. He and his business controlled every aspect of production, from mining to marketing. His goal was to improve efficiency.
the railroad network
The Union Pacific Railroad was commissioned by Congress in 1862 to build a transcontinental railroad starting in Omaha, Nebraska.Many railroad workers, including Irish "Paddies", were forced to pick up their rifles and fight when Indians attempted to defend their lands.
Industrial workers
During the decades after the Civil War, economic miracles increased the standard of living in the United States. The industry of agriculture declined to manufacturing.
horizontal integration
"Horizontal integration" entailed allying with competitors to monopolize a given market. This tactic of creating trusts was used by Rockefeller.
Standard time zones
At this time, every town in the United States had its own local time. In order to keep schedules and avoid wrecks, the major rail lines stated, on November 18, 1883, that the continent would be divided into 4 times zones - most towns accepted the new time method.
James Duke
James Buchanan Duke took advantage of the growing tobacco business and formed the American Tobacco Company in 1890.
women
Women were slowly gaining more rights during this time period., gaining more opportunities to work in factories
J. Pierpont Morgan
the bankers' banker
Interstate Commerce Act
In 1887, Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act. It prohibited rebates and pools, required the railroads to publish their rates openly, forbade unfair discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for a short trip than for a long one over the same line. It also created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to administer and enforce the new legislation.
John D. Rockefeller
the oil baron
Age of Industrialization
Throughout the industrial strive in the North, the South produced a smaller percentage of the nation's manufactured goods. Southern agriculture received a boost in the 1880s when machine-made cigarettes replaced earlier methods of producing cigarettes. This caused tobacco consumption to shoot up.
Andrew Carnegie
the steel king
land grants
Growing railroads took up more land than they were allotted because their land grants were given over a broad path through the proposed route. The railroad owners would then choose the route to build on. President Grover Cleveland ended the land dispute in 1887 when he opened up all the unclaimed public portions of the grants to the public.
Grange
he National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, also simply styled the Grange, is a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good. Founded in 1867 after the Civil War, it is the oldest surviving agricultural organization in America, though now much diminished from the over one million members it had in its peak in the 1890s through the 1950s. In addition to serving as a center for many farming communities, the Grange was an effective special interest group for farmers and their agendas, including fighting railroad monopolies and pushing for rural mail deliveries. Indeed, the word "grange" itself comes from a Latin word for grain, and is related to a "granary" or, more generically, a farm.

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