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History Midterm Review 2


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New Deal
New Deal was FDR's plan to get out of the Depression; the goal was to increase consumer purchasing power
Battle of Britain
Germany attacked Britain with a constant air bombardment. Britain held off the German even thought it caused a great deal of damage to Britain; result was that Hitler delayed the invasion of Britain.
Zimmerman Telegram
one of the causes of the Americans getting into WWI; proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico
Trench Warfare
The major type or style of fighting during most of WWi; miles of trenches were dug throughout Europe by both sides
Cultural Advances 1920s
Literature, greatest advance in the 1920s
Glass-Steagall Banking Act
Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in the United States and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation
Joseph Stalin
Communist dictator of Soviet Union during WWII. Believed in nationalism, government ownership of property, military expansion, and a strong central government
Sussex Pledge
A German agreement not to continue unrestricted submarine warfare against the United States during WWI as a result of President Wilson's demands
Civilian Conservation Corps
Young men who were hired by the Federal government to help build National parks, Etc
Winston Churchill
Prime Minister of Britain during WWII . Part of Allies. Opposed the Munich Pact before the war
War Effort (African Americans)
1st war that American Americans could be trained as officers and when African Americans came back they were not going to take discrimination; came back from the war that is
Anti-Lynching Laws
FDR did not institute the laws because he did not want to lose the Southern Democrat Whites
Black Tuesday
A record number of people tried to sell their stock
American Workers 1920s
Did not fully share the new wealth of the time period
The ideology and practice of the Nazis, especially the policy of racist nationalism, national expansion, and state control of the economy
name for German submarines in both WWI and WWII
Worl War II Causes
Germany and several other countries turned to dictatorships following the failure of democracies. England and France tried to first appease Hitler and Germany. Startes offically when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939; FDR declared neutrality; US involved after Axis Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor Us's closest ally was England
Works Progress Administration
Provided lots of jobs in professional and artistic areas
Against war
Non-Agression Pact
Not wanting to fight a 2 front war Germany signed the Nazi-Soviet Non agression pact with the soviets. The two fromal rivals publicy pronmised not to attack one another. Secretly they agreed to invade an divide Poland and recognize each others territorial ambitions. The public agreement shocked the west and guaranteed a German offensive in Poland
Axis Powers
Germany. Italy, and Japan in WWII
Sit Down Strike
New type of labor action- 1st started at General Motors
Francisco Franco
Facist dictator of Spain during WWII. Believed in nationalism, military expansion, and a strong central government. Kept Spain neutral during war.
Roosevelt Corollary
Foreign policy of TR's that was an addition to the Monroe doctrine; TR was afraid that Europe was going to get involves in South America, he wanted to keep them out
Great Coral Strike of 1902
Theodore Roosevelt sided with the miners
Munich Pact
Agreement between Germany, Britain, and France to allow Hitler to take over the Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia
Organized labor
used the war to get advances with the Unions; like pay raises
Versailles Treaty
Treaty that ended WWI; established new nations in Europe; and shifted the boundaries of other nations; agreed to a League of Nations; punished Germany for their part in the war; US senate did not ratify this treaty beacuse he was unwilling to compromise with opponents
Harlem Renaissance
Aymbolized the flowering of African-American culture in the 1920s
U.S Strategy WWII (Pacific)
Before the war FDR used economy pressure to stop Japanese aggression; for example a trade embargo.
Spectator Sports 1920s
More money meant more time for going to games such as baseball
Federal deposit Insurance Corporation
A New Deal government agency that helped the nation's banks protect peoples savings by insuring the money in case of bank failure
18th ammendment- Bred a profound disrespect for the law; also led to a rise in organized crime
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy during WWII. Believed in nationalism, military expansion, and a strong central goverment. part of the Axis Powers.
Scopes Trial
Famous evolution trial with biology teacher
Labor Unions 1920
Weakened by several factors-owners attempt to portray them as radical- intensive government; intervention in labor affairs injunctions &
Hundred Days
closed banks, started the TVA; and the AAA; and the CCC
Farmer's Problems 1920s
Overproduction left over from WWI
War Industries Board (WIB)
Ran the production of America's factories
Upton Sinclair
Muckraker who wrote the Jungle; got Roosevelt to investigate meatpacking industry
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian immigrants- anachists convicted of murder example of nativism
Social Security Act
Program designed to reform the economy with a government pension plan, helped with unemployment and the disabled. Longest enduring program of the New Deal
Committee on Public Information
during WWI- American public relations group who launched a hate campaign against Germany
Herbert Hoover (beleifs)
Did not believe in direct relief because it would undermine the character of American citizens
AEF (American Expeitionary Force)
American army in WWI made up mostly of draftees
Stock Market Crash (specific characterisitics)
Speculation, buying on margin; many stocks overload; so many working Americans involved in it.
Pearl Harbor
Axis Japan's attack on US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The US forces weren't caught by suprisse, but failed to react due to human miscalculations and mistakes
Wilson's Latin American policy
At first moralistic- then continued the policies of Taft and Roosevelt
Woodrow Wilson
Domestic programs were a mixture of two different forms of Progressivism- his and Theodore Roosevelt's
Adolf Hitler
Facist dictator of Germany during WWII. Believed in nationalism, racism, military expansion, and a strong central government. Led Nazi party. Part of Axis
Tripartite Pact
Agreement between Germany, Italy, and Japan to form a mutual defense bond; if any of the nations were attacked then the other 2 would come to their aid
Ernest Hemingway
Important author who had the greatest impact on other American Authors because of his writing style
Tennessee Valley Authority
Electricity and jobs for rural area
German military strategy that depended on suprise and military strenght. Very successful in the first years of war.
Hawley Smoot Tariff
Highest protective tariff in history
Believed that the answer to every important moral and scietific question was in their holy book. Their ideas took root all over the country but were especially strong in rural America. Fundametalism- emphasized Protestant teachings and
National Reclamation Act
1902 law that gave the federal government the power to decide where and how water would be distributed through the bulding and managment of dams and irrigation projects
Naturalist novels
honestly portrayed human misery and the struggles of common people. (ex. the Jungle)
American Casualties in WWI
Fewest among major nations- still played an important role in WWI
Practice of making high-risk investments in hopes of obtaining large profits
Dust Bowl
Was caused by the following: drought, winds and over production
Effects of Automobile
Profoundly changed American life
Red Scare 1919
was an outgrowth of the intense nationalism of WW!; against communism
Causes: imperialist competition, stockpiling of weapons, nationalism of ethnic groups Result: Allies won, Germany lost
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
A fire at the factory in NYC shocked Americans and focused attention on the need to protect workers. Workers in the factory had little chance to escape the raging fire because managers locked most of the exists. The fire killed 146 workers most young Jewish women. After the blaze, outraged Progressives intensified their calls for reform. Ny passed laws to make workplaces safer. Many states set up workers compensation laws to help pay workers hurt on the job.
Bonus Army
Consisted of WWI veterans and their families
The Paris Peace Conference
Is were they discussed the Treaty of Versailles; Wilson brought people he could control with him to the conference
Installment buying
Method of purchase in which buyer makes a small down paymnet and then pays off the rest of the debt in regular monthly paymnets
Civilian Conservation Corps
put almost 3 million young men to work developing parks, and helping in soil-erosion and flood-control project
A dramatic increase in patents in the late 1800s; it changed American life drastically; government recognition of your invention
American Family 1920s
Grew smaller; and started using credit
Dow Jones Industrial Average
The name for the most widely used measure of the stock market
Ku Klux Klan
Attacked anyone who seemed different to them
immigration Restrictions 1920
Tightened laws allowing European and Asian immigration- due to nativisim; also was the most enduring achievement of the rural counterattack; also lots of Mexican immigration then the because they were not restricted
American Economy 1920s (growth)
The consumer goods industries is where there was the greatest growth and new technology the key to the new wealth
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
To provide aid for the most needy of people during the depression
Women's Christian Temperance Union
This group promoted temperance, the practice of never drinking alchol. Members felt that alchol often led men to abuse their wives. Formed in the 1870s, the WCTU gained strength during the Progressive Era. Their work led to the passage of the 18th ammendmnet
Double Standard
Dealt with the fact that women had to do everything else and still work outside the home
Cities 1920s
Grew due to African American immigration from South; center of culture during this time period
Causes of Great Depression
Declines in new buliding permits; large amounts of consumer debt; and the 3rd cause a widening gap between rich and poor
The emergency banking relief act
Authorized the Treasury Department to inspect banks and to close those that were not strong, with the goal of restoring public confidence in the banking system; first major action of the New Deal
New Deal Program
FDR- Packing the Court- tried but failed to reorganize of the Supreme Court
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Sought to end overproduction and raise crop prices. To accomplish these goals, the AAA provided financial aid, paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock
Roosevelt Corollary
Addition to Monroe Doctrine- discourage European interference in the Western Hemisphere
New Deal Coalition
Various groups of democrats who supported FDR- African American, Women, Southern Whites, Etc
Easy Credit
People could purchase things off of credit which before they would have had to save up for years
Wilson's Global Idealism
14 points peace plan; League of Nations
Man versus Female Workers (early 1900s)
Women still had traditional female jobs and were mostly ignored in union in late 19th century
Stock Price Inflation
people paid more for a share of stock than it was worth
Ship sunk by German U-boats over 100 American lives were lost; another reason for American in WWI
Lend-Lease Act of 1941
Gave England and the allied forces easy access to American War supplies while the US remained neutral
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic President who started office with the 100 days of the New Deal; pushed a lot of programs dealing with reilef, recovery and reform for the American people
Effects of Great Depression
The money supply became a federal responsibility; a minimum standard of living for most Americans was initiated; the Public Utility System was improved
National Recovery Administration
Sought to promote business recovery by restoring competition but it was declared; unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
Dollar diplomacy
Taft's foreign policy- promoted American financial and business intrests abroad

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