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Europe in the Middle Ages

Terms

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Benedict of Nursia
monk who organized the Monte Cassino monastery in Italy.
Papacy
when medieval popes have authority over rulers.
Avignon Papacy
popes reigned over the flourishing court. Worldly and opposed the involvement by the church feeling grew.
Serf
a peasant who is bound to land and cannot leave. The serfs went along with the manor if it were granted to a new lord.
Vikings
Scandinavian people who raided Europe from the 700s to the 1100s. Independent farmers, sailors, traders, and explorers.
Inquisition
a Church court set up to try people accused or heresy. An opinion or belief that contradicts the religious teachings.
Excommunicate
exclusion from the Catholic Church, as a penalty for refusal to Church Law. As a result you could not get to participate, do not get revival of sacraments, no Christian burial, and more.
Canon Law
laws of Church based on religious teachings, life, marriage, and morals. Needed to be properly obeyed and followed.
Parliament
first was the legislature of England and then Great Britain. Helped unify England and required the government to play a large role.
Guilds
associations that merchants put together for economic and political power. Made profits, was hard work, and very positive fro everyone. Provided jobs and places of expertise.
Fief
an estate under a powerful lord and ranged from a few acres to hundred of miles. Peasants worked on the land and worked in the towns or buildings inside of the fief.
Vassal
a lord who was granted land in exchange fro service and loyalty to a more powerful lord.
Magyars
group now in present-day Hungary. Nomadic people who overran Eastern Europe around 900.
Friars
monks that do not live on the monastery.
Scholasticism
method used by Christian scholars to use reason to support Christian beliefs, especially in times of conflict between faith and reason.
Chivalry
a code of conduct the knights adopted. It required the knights to have bravery, be loyal, and true their word. In addition, it dictated that knights protect the weak, which include noblewomen and peasants.
Monasticism
the act of becoming monks or nuns. Live in the monastery and devote lives to church and spiritual goals.
Hundred Years' War
France and England war. Changes to the medieval world.
Feudalism
a loosely organized type of government where local lords governed their own lands but still owed military service and other types f support to a greater lord.
Investiture Controversy
appointment of bishops by anyone who is not a member of the clergy. Gregory wanted the church to be independent of secular rulers. This was one of his reforms.
Charlemagne
played role of papal protector (POPE) and expanded territory. He desired to be a universal emperor and used the church to promote social stability and order. Education became a priority of the Christian ruler. Christmas Day, 800 Pope III crowned Charlemagne Emperor and Charlemagne had restored pope to power.
Black Death
epidemic of the bubonic plague that spread through Europe in the 1300s. Deathly disease.
Oath of Fealty
the exchange of the lords with vassals. Agreement.
Heresy
Belief that is opposite of the official teaching of the Church.
Gothic Style
style of architecture that had stone supports that stood outside of the church. Had high, thin walls, and places for large stained glass windows.
Interdict
excommunication of entire region, town, or kingdom if refusal of Church Law.
Common Law
legal government system based on customs and court rulings. Applied to all of England and were the foundation of the decisions in the royal courts.
Magna Carta
limited royal power and established rights. A charter approved by King John in England in 1215.
Reconquista
a campaign by the European Christians to drive out the Muslims in Spain. During the 1400s.
Great Schism Council of Constance
During the year 1414. A split between the Catholic Church. The claims that three Popes would be dangerous were taught to have hurt the reputation of the Church. Under Gregory X.
Manor
the lord's estate. Most include one or more villages and peasants made up the majority of the population where they lived and worked.
Crusades
a series of wars in which European Christians battled for the Holy Land of the Muslims.
Estates General Holy Roman Empire
empire of West central Europe. Conflicts between rulers and church officials arose.

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