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AP Euro The Italian Renaissance


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1. Occured in Italy around 1300 and lasted until mid-16th century
2. Renaissance spread to Northern Europe around 1450
3. In England, the Renaissance did not begin until the 16th Centiury and lasted until the early 17th century (Shakespeare)
Republic fof Florence
Medici Family, known for the arts
Peace of Lodi
1454 created a relative 40-yr period of peace amoung tha tItalian city states
LOngest lasting Italian city-state, economically grea b/c of their trading and naval powers
THe Prince, "the end justifies the means", "it was better to be feared than to be loved", rulers had to be practical and cunning in addition to being ruthless and aggressive
Sack of Rome in 1527
Emp. Charles V sacked it b/c he didn't agree w/ the doings of the church, symbolized the end of the Renaissance in Italy
1. Revival of antiquity (Greece and Rome) in philoshy, literature and art
2. Strong belief in individualism and the great potential of human beings
3. Focused first on studying ancient languages
4. Rejected scolasticism (medieval theory that emphasized rigorous analysis of contrary authorities oftend used to try and reocncile faith and reason)
5. liberal arts
6.Secular and Lay dominated
Civic humanism
the idea that education should prepare leaders who would be active in civic affairs
"father of humanism"
-writer, wrote that literature was no longer subordinate to religion
-claimed the middle ages were the "dark ages"
Wrote Decameron, social commentary of Italy in 14th century
Leonardo Bruni
-most impt of the civic humanists
-wrote a history of FLorence
Lorenzo Valla
-expert on latin langauge
-wrote 'On the False Donation of Constantine'
-found other faults within the church
Pico della Mirandola
wrote "Oration on the Dignity of Man"
-humans were created by GOd and therefore given tremendous potential for greatness, and enven union with GOd if they desired it
-created concept of free will
THe Book of the Coutier
-specifed the qualities necessary to be a true gentleman
-Described ideal "Renaissance Man"
Johann GUtenberg
Develped movable type+printing press, made the spread of humanistic literature possible
Florence in the 1400s
leader in Renaissance Art, patronage came from wealthy merchant families (eg the Mecicis), also from local churches who saw art as a means of glorifying GOd
Rome (1500s)
During this time, Pop Alexander VI spent a lot on the arts, such as the dome atop St. Peter's Cathedral, Sistine Chapel paintings, Shcool of Athens, Tempietto
New Artisitc characteristics of the Renaissance
1. Painting: Perspective (3-D look), depth, & emotion
2. Scultpture: Free standing, nude figures, glorifed the individual
3. Architecture: Greek temple style
considered the 1st Renaissance painter,
Fillippo Brunelleschi
Il Duomo-lagest dome in Europe at the time, "father of perspective"
Lorenzo Ghuberti
"Gates of Paradise"
Bronze David-1st to use a nude figure
Sandro Botticelli
Birth of Venus,
High Renaissance
Centered in Rome (1500s), Popes Alexander VI, Julius II and Leo X all provided tremendous patronage to the arts, (Characteristically balanced, harmonious and restrained)
Architect, Tempitto-marked beginning of high Renaissance in ROme
Leonardo Da VInci
-quintessential "renaissance man"
-Mona Lisa, last supper
Raphael (Santi)
painter of "Madonna and Child", school of athens,
Michelangelo (Buonarroti)
Ceiling of sistine chapel, David (glorifies human body), Pieta (Mary holding up limp body of Christ), St. Peter's dome
-Reaction against Ranassance ideal of balace, symmetry, simplicity and realistic use of color,
El Greco
Greatest Mannerists w/ his use of elongated figures and unnatural pigments

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