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World Studies Unit 2 Test

World Studies Unit 2 Test Review

Terms

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Tax Systems
Stamp Act, and taxed within estates (third and second)
Reign of Terror
In July 1793, Robespierre became leader of the Comittee of Public Safety. For the next year, Robespierre governed France virtually as a dictator, and the period of his rule became known as this. The Committe of Public Safety's chief task was to protect the Revolution from its enemies. Under Robespierre's leadership, the committee often had these "enemies" tried in the morning and guillotined in the afternoon. Robespierre justified his use of terror by suggesting that it enabled French citizens to remain true to the ideals of the Revolution. He also saw a connection between virtue and terror. The "enemies of the Revolution" who troubled Robespierre the most were fellow radicals who challenged his leadership.
Thirty Years' War
Conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families. It was over Hapsburg triumphs and defeats
Kaiser
an Emperor
Divine Right
The idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth
Congress of Vienna
European heads of government were looking to establish long-lasting peace and stability on the continent after the defeat of Napoleon. They had a goal of the new European order- one of collective security and stability for the entire continent. A series of meetings in Vienna, were called to set up policies to achieve this goal. Originally, it was scheduled to last for four weeks. Instead, it went on for eight months.
Baroque
European art of the 1600s and early 1700s had been dominated by this style, which was characterized by a grand, ornate design. These styles could be seen in elaborate palaces such as Versailles and in numerous paintings
Realism
In literature and visual arts, this tried to show life as it was, not as it should be. It reflected the increasing political importance of the working class in the 1850s. Along with paintings, novels proved especially suitable for describing workers' suffering.
Simon Bolivar
A wealthy Venezuela creole that declared its independence from Spain in 1811. His volunteer army of revolutionaries suffered numerous defeats. Twice he had to go into exile. A turning point came in August 1819. He led over 2,000 soldiers on a daring march through the Andes into what is now Colombia. Coming from this direction, he took the Spainish army in Bogota completely by surprise and won a decisive victory. He had won Venezuela's independence.
Estate System
Two of the estates had privileges, including access to high offices and exemptions from paying taxes, that were not granted to the members of the third. The Roman Catholic Church, whose clergy formed the First Estate, owned 10 percent of the land in France. It provided education and relief services to the poor and contributed about 2 percent of its income to the government. The second estate was made up of rich nobles. Although they accounted for just 2 percent of the population, the nobles owned 20 percent of the land and paid almost no taxes. The majority of the clergy and the nobility scorned enlightenment ideas as radical notions that threatened their status and power as privileged persons. About 97 percent of the people belonged to the Third Estate. The three groups that made up this estate differed greatly in their economic conditions.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Accomplishments: He drove away gunners from the National Convention,seized political power when the directory collapsed, ordered a plebiscite and this gave all real power to him as first consul, established lycees, Napoleonic Code, Concordat, established an efficient method of tax collection and established a national banking system. Defeats: The Battle of Trafalgar,Continental System, Invasion of Russia, Peninsular War, Waterloo, and Hundred days
Enlightenment
A new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems. Started frokm some key ideas put forth by two English political thinkers of the 1600's, Thomas hobbes and john locke.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
In May 1860, a small army of Italian nationalists led by a bold and visionary soldier, captured sicily. In battle, he always wore a bright red shirt, asw did his followers. As a result, they became known as the Red Shirts. From Sicily, he and his forces crossed to the Italian mainland and marched north. Eventually, he agreed to unite the southern areas he had conquered with the kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia. Cavour arranged for King Victor Emmanuel II to meet him in Naples. "The Red One" willingly agreed to step aside and let the Sardinian king rule.
Romanticism
This movement reflected deep interest both in nature and in the thoughts and feelings of the individual. In many ways, these thinkers and writers reacted against the ideals of the Enlightenment. They turned from reason to emotion, from society to nature.
Legitimacy
Agreeing that as many as possible of the rulers whom Napoleon had driven from their thrones be restored to power. The ruling families of France, Spain, and several states in Italy and Central Europe regained their thrones. The participants in the Congress of Vienna believed that the return of the former monarchs would stabilize political relations among the nations.
philosophes
The social critics of this period. They believed that people could apply reason to all aspects of life, just as Isaac Newton had applied reason to science. Five concepts formed the core of their beliefs: Reason, Nature, Happiness, Progress, and Liberty
Social Contract
Hobbes argued that to escape such a bleak life, people had to hand over their rights to a strong ruler. In exchange, they gained law and order. Hobbes called this agreement by which people created a government, because people acted in their own self-interest, Hobbes said, the ruler needed total power to keep citizens under control.
Nation-state
When a nation had its own independent government. It defends the nation's territory and way of life, and it respresents the nation to the rest of the world.
Impressionism
Instead of showing life "as it really was," they tried to show their impression of a subject or a moment in time. Fascinated by light, these artists used pure, shimmering colors to capture a moment seen at a glance.
Scientific Revolution
This was a new way of thinking about the natural world. That way was based upon careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs.
Saint Domingue
In 1789, when the ideas of the Revolution reached these planters, they demanded that the National Assembly give them the same privileges as the people of France. Eventually, enslaved Africans in the colony demanded their rights too- in other words, their freedom. A civil war erupted, and enslaved Africans under the leadership of Touissant L'Ouverture seized control of the colony. In 1801, Napoleon decided to take back the colony and restore its productive sugar industry. However, the French forces were devastated by disease. And the rebels proved to be fierce fighters. After the failure of the expedition to this island, Napoleon decided to cut his losses in the Americas. He sold all of his Louisiana Territory to the US, and in 1803 President Jefferson's administration agreed to puchase the land for $15 million. Napoleon saw a twofold benefit to the sale. First, he would gain money to finance operations in Europe. Second, he would punish the British.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Three weeks later, the National Assembly adopted a statement of revolutionary ideals. Reflecting the influence of the Declaration of Independence, the document stated that "men are born and remain free and equal in rights." These rights included "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression." The document also guaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.
Nationalism
The belief that people's greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history.
Napoleon's problems
Continental System, Peninsular war, and the Invasion of Russia
Camillo di Cavour
Prime minister of Sardinia. He was a cunning statesman who worked tirelessly to expand Piedmont-Sardinia's power. Using skillful diplomacy and well-chosen alliances he set about gaining control of northern Italy for Sardinia. Realized that the greatest roadblock to annexing northern Italy was Austria. In 1858, the French emperor Napoleon III agreed to help drive Austria out of the northern Italian provinces. He then provoke a war with the Austrinas. A combined French- Sardinian army won two quick victories. Sardinia succeeded in taking all of Northern Italy, except Venetia.
Junkers
strongly conservative members of Prussia's wealthy landowning class.
Absolute Monarchs
kings or queens who held all of the power with their states' boundaries
Radical
Favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people. They believed that governments should practice the ideals of the French Revolution- liberty, equality, and brotherhood.
Ivan the Terrible
He accused the boyars of poising his wife, Anastasia, and he turned against them. He organized his own police force, whose chief duty was to hunt down and murder people he considered traitors. The members of this police force dressed in black and rode black horses. He executed many boyars, their families, and the peasants who worked their lands. He seized boyars' estates and gave them to a new class of nobles, who had to remain loyal to him or lose their lands. During a violent quarrel , he killed his oldest son and heir
Jose de San Martin
In Ecuador, Bolivar finally met with this man. Together they would decide the future of the Latin American revolutionary movement. His Argentina had declared its independence in 1816. However, Spanish forces in nearby Chile and Peru still posed a threat: In 1817, he led an army on a grueling march across the Andes to Chile. He was joined there by forces led by Bernardo O'Higgins, son of a former viceroy of Peru. With O'Higgins's help, he finally freed Chile. In 1821, he planned to drive the remaining Spanish forces out of Lima, Peru. But to do so, he needed a much larger force. He and Bolivar discussed this problem when they met at Guayaquil, Ecuador, in 1822. He left his army with Bolivar to command. The future countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador were united into a coutnry called Gran Colombia.
Burgeoisie
Middle class- were bankers, factory owners, merchants, professionals, and skilled artisans. Often, they were well educated and believed strongly in the Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality. Although some of these people were as rich as nobles, they paid high taxes and, like the rest of the Third Estate, lacked privileges. Many felt that their wealth entitled them to a greater degree of social status and political power
Bill of Rights
In order to gain support, the Frederalists promised to add this to the constitution. This promise cleared the way for approval. Congress formally added to the Constitution the ten amendments. These amendments protected such basic rights as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion. Many of these rights had been advocated by Voltair, Rousseau, and Locke
Bastaille Day
Some people suggested that Louis was intent on using military force to dismiss the National Assembly. Others charged that the foreign troops were coming to Paris to massacre French citizens. People began to gather weapons in order to defend the city against attack. On July 14, a mob searching for gunpowder and arms stormed the Bastaille, a Paris prison. The mob overwhelmed the guard and seized control of the building. The angry attackers hacked the prison commander and several guards to death, and then paraded around the streets with the dead men's heads on pikes.
Heliocentric Theory
Nicolaus Copernicus' Sun-centered theory still did not completely explain why the planets orbited the way they did.
National Assembly
In a dramatic speech, Sieyes suggested that the Third estate delegates name themselves this and pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people. After a long night of excited debate, the delegates of the third estate agreed to Sieyes idea by an overwhelming majority. On June 17, 1789, they voted to establish this, in effect proclaiming the end of absolute monarchy and the beginning of representative government. This vote was the first deliberate act of revolution
Russification
Forcing russian culture on all the ethnic groups in the empire. This policy actually strengthened ethnic nationalist feelings and helped to disunify Russia.
Liberal
Mostly middle-class business leaders and merchants. They wanted to give more power to elected parliaments, but only the educated and the landowners would vote.
Louis XIV
The most powerful ruler in French History
Legislative Assembly
The constitution created a limited constitutional monarchy. It stripped the king of much of his authority. It also created a new legislative body. This body had the power to create laws and to approve or reject declaration of war. However, the kind still held the executive power to enforce laws
King Wilhelm
People in southern germany finally excepted prussian leadership. On january 18,1871, at the captured French palace of Versailles, he was crowned kaiser or emperor. The Germans called their empire the second reich.
Old Regime
In the 1770s, the social and political system of France remained in place. Under this system, the people of France were divided into three large social classes, or estates.
Declaration of Independence
The Second Continental Congress issued this. This document, written by political leader Thomas Jefferson, was firmly based on the ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment. This reflected these ideas in its eloquent argument for natural rights
Geocentric Theory
this earth-centered view of the universe, the idea came from aristotle, the greek philosopher of the fourth century b.c. the greek astronomer ptolemy expanded the theory in the second century a.d. In addition, christianity taught that god had deliberately placed the earth at the center ofd the universe. Earth was thus a special place on which the great drama of life unfolded.
Mulattos
Persons of mixed European and African ancestry, and enslaved Africans. Indians were at the bottom of the social ladder
Creoles
Spaniards born in Latin America, were below the peninsulares in rank. They could not hold high-level political office, but they could rise as officers in Spanish colonial armies. Together these two groups controlled land, wealth, and power in the Spanish colonies.
Conservative
usually wealthy property owners and nobility. They argued for protecting the traditional monarchies of Europe.
Peter The Great
He was one of Russia's greatest reformers. He also continued the trend of increasing the czar's power. One of his goals was to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques. Never before had a czar traveled among Western "heretics"
Otto Von Bismarck
Wilhelm chose a conservative Junker as his prime minister. He was a master of what came to be known as realpolitik. He declared that he would rule without the consent of parliament and without a legal budget. Those actions were in direct violation of the constitution.
Westernization
Peter's goal of using western Europe for change, was not an end in itself. Peter saw it as a way to make Russia Stronger.
Versailles
An elaborate palace that was constructed under Louix XIV's influence. Was a center of the arts during Louis's reign.
Peninsulares
At the top of Spanish- American society were people who had been born in Spain, which is on the Iberian peninsula. They formed a tiny percentage of the population. Only these people could hold high office in Spanish colonial government.
Neoclassical
Under the influence of the Enlgihtenment, styles began to change. Artists and architects worked in a simple and elegant style that borrowed ideas and themes from classical Greece and Rome. The artistic style of the 1700s is therefore called this
St. Petersburg
To promote education and growth, Peter wanted a seaport that would make it easier to travel to the West. Although the swampy site was unhealthful, it seemed ideal to peter. shipes could sail down the neva river in the baltic sea and on to western europe.
Mestizos
Below the peninsulares and creoles came persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry.

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