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Exam 1 Flash Cards


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3 functions of sleep
-memory consolidation
-energy conservation
-helps restore bodily functions
4 areas of psychology
clinical: diagnose and treat emotional problems
counseling: deal with problems of everday life and transitions
school/educational:enhance school performance and resolve emotional problems
industrial/organizational:staff human servi
4 different kinds of awareness
1.) of external events
2.) of internal sensations
3.) of oneself as unique to experiences
4.) of thoughts about experiences
4 goals of psychology
-describe how people and animals behave
-understand and explain the causes of behavior
-predict behaviors/reactions across situations
-control behavior through understanding its causes and consequences
5 problems associated with sleep deprivation
-decrease immune functions
-leads to hallucinations and perceptual disorders
-less alert and attentive
-more irritable
-ability to perform simple tasks declines
5 short term effects of marijuana
-problems with learning and memory
-distorted perception
-loss of coordination
-increased heart rate
-panic attacks/anxiety
5 steps to start a research study
1.) develop a theory based on observations
2.) develop a hypothesis from the theory
3.) design a research study
4.) gather the data
5.) analyze the data and report findings
6 data collection techniques
1.) direct observation
2.) questionnaires
3.) interviews
4.) psychological tests
5.) physiological readings
6.) examination of historical records
absolute refractory period
minimum amount of time during which another action potential cannot begin
absolute threshold
the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected at least 50% of the time
absolute threshold for smell
1 drop of perfume in a 6(3) room apt.
absolute threshold for taste
1 tsp of sugar in 2 gallons of water
absolute threshold for touch
wing of bee on cheek dropped from 1 cm
acetylcholine (neurotransmitter)
muscle action, memory and attention; emotion and cognition; some receptors stimulated by nicotine
action potetial
when a nerve is stimulated an electrical impulse occurs and moves down the axon to the end of the axon's terminal tip
adrenal hormones
involved in emotions and stress
the height/depth of a wave; corresponds with loudness; the greater the amplitued the louder the sound
muscle building
increased masculine characteristics
masculinizing hormones
stimuli for hearing are sound waves
autonomic nervous system
-flight or fight response
-works automatically
-takes messages to and from the body's internal organs monitoring breathing, heart rate, and digestion
-two parts to the ANS (SNS, PNS)
transmit messages away from the cell to other neurons, muscles, or glands
basilar membrane
holds the auditory receptors
behaviorist perspective
the environmental impact on a person's actions
-observe behavioral responses
-classical conditioning - Pavlov's dog
-operant conditioning - rewards and punisments
-social learning theory - Barney (watching others)
biological perspective
-understand the mind and behavior through biological processes in brain
-electrical and chemical processes of neurons
-localization of function
case study
-in depth study of an individual or small group
-provides systematic observatios
-limited generizability
-susceptible to researcher bias
cell body/soma
keep neurons alive; contains substances for growth, determines whether to fire
chronic insomnia
underlying medical or behavioral issues, does have a genetic component likely as it runs in families
circadian cycles
- individuals have internal clocks; run on a 24 hour cycle; set up for sleep at night; night time sleepiness: 2am-6am peak; siesta zone: 1-4pm; programmed for naps
-made up of the brain and spinal cord
-99% of eurons are located in the CNS
-functions include recieving, processing and storing incoming information; sends out messages to muscles, glands, and internal organs
-the central command
a fluid-filled tunnel that has tiny hairs or cilia's which are the sound receptors... they move in different directions, triggering the sensory neurons and an action potential
cognitive perspective
-mental processes involved in knowing
-focus on storage and retrieval of info
-mind is like computer
cognitive research
explores higher level mental processes like memory, reasoning, information processing and creativity
the awareness of internal and external stimuli
function best in bright light, serve as color receptors (6 million in humans)
confounding of variables
variables whih interact making it difficult to know the true impact of the IV; genetics vs. environmental influences
continuous vs. categorical variable
-continuous-a variable which can be measured across a continuum
-categorical-a variable with a fixed meaning or attribute (pregnant or not, divorced or not)
light waves enter eye through cornea
correlational studies
explores the relationships between two variables using a numerical value
crack and cocaine
powerfully addictive central nervous system stimulant
CT scans
multiple x rays of successive slices of the brain. looks at brain structure
demand characteristics
subjects may behave in ways they think are expected of them
recieve messages from other neurons, transmit to the cell body
dependent variable
is measured to asses any change in response to the manipulation
slow down CNS activity, induce sleep, decrease activity
depth perception
retina recieves information in 2 dimensions, length and width and the brain traslates into 3 dimensions.  uses binocular and monocular cues
descriptive and correlational studies
-looks at patterns of behavior across conditions
-links variables which show consistent patterns or relationships
developmental research
change and growth over the lifespan
difference threshold
the smalles difference between two stimuli that people can percieve 50% of the time
involved in learning, memory and pleasurable emotion.  high levels of dopamine associated with schizophrenia; low levels with parkinsons
double-blind study
controls for subject and experiment bias with limited knowledge for both
dual process theory
it takes trichromatic and opponenet process theories to explain color vision
electrode method (EEG)
detect electrical activity of neurons; look at brain waves across events
epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones
stimulate the sympathetic nervous system
feminizing hormones
evolutionary perspective
adaptive behavioral traits selected to ensure our survival
excitatory neurotransmitter
increases the likelihood it will fire an action potential
experimental group
receive the special treatment in the experiment
experimental research
conduct lab studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology and cognition
experimenter bias
resrach expectation may impact the interpretation of the results
extraneous variable
variable other than the IV which can impact results: time of day, lighting, procedural variations
feminist perspective
-stresses gender and the behavior of the sexes
-psychology historically white male dominated
-focus on women's issues; mensruation, menopause
assess changes in blood oxygen flow to areas of the brain, able to look at both structure and function of the brain
the number of sound waves, cycles per second.  most common sounds are in lower frequencies
frequency theory
nerve impulses sent to the brain match the frequency of the sound waves
GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) (neurotransmitter)
inhibitory neurotransmitter, low levels linked with anxiety, anit exiety drugs increase inhibitory effects of GABA
the ability to reasonably apply the results to other similar populations
gestalt perspective
-looks at the elements of experience organized as a whole
-whole as greater than the sum of the parts
-looks at the construct of insight
glial cells
hold the neurons in place, nourish and insulate neurons; non neuron cells which provide a supportive function (glue-glial)
alter perception, distort sensory experiences
health hazards of steroids
-liver tumors and cancer
-fluid retention and high blood pressure
-severe acne
How many olfactory receptors do humans have?
40 million
what is meant by color
humanistic perspective
-rejects psychoanalysis as too pessimistic
-stresses free will and goal to reach human potential
Humans have about ______ taste buds
systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened sense of susceptibility
Hypnotic subjects
those more likely to be absorbed in fantasy make good hypnotic subjects
a proposed relationship between two variables
independent variable
is manipulated by the experimenter
inhibitory neurotransmitter
decreases the likelihood of an action potential
CNS neurons that mediate sensory input and motor output
the pupils size is controlled by muscles in the colored iris that surrounds the pupil
just noticable difference
the smalles difference in which you can detect a difference threshold
the body's way of giving feedback about our muscle and joint position; gives us a sense of coordinated movement
Krosnick study
subliminal messages may shape attitueds without conscious awareness
behind the pupil it become thiner to focus on distant objects and thicker to focus on nearby objects; focuses images onto the retina, revering the image from right to left and from top to bottom; the brain reconstructs it into the image we perceive
lesion method
damage or remove section of brain and observe the effects
long term risks of alcohol
-liver disease
-brain damage
-heart disease
-birth defects
psychoactive drug with both stimulant and ahallucinogenic properties

-is neurotoxic : sharp increase in body temperature, cause muscle breadown and kidney and cardiovascular system failure, brain imaging studies have shown injury to t
melatonin (hormone)
 regulates biological rythm
motor/efferent neurons
carry the brains output to muscles, glands and organs
uses magnetic fields and radio frequencies which produce vibrations that are picked up by recievers. provides a structural view of the brain
falling asleep suddenly or "sleep attacks" which can occur at any time and last a few seconds or 30 minutes
naturalistic observation
-looks at behavior in a natural environment
-reports observations
-can describe, but not explain behaviors
-individual cells which recieve, integrate and transmit information
chemical substances which carry info across the synaptic gap to the next neuron
norepinephrine (neurotransmitter)
learning, memory and emotion, excite heart muscles, intestines and urogenital tract, involved in alertness and wakefulness
opponent process theory
each type of cone responds to two different wavelengths; red/green, blue/yellow, black/white
optic chiasm
where the optic nerves from each eye cross over and pass information to the opposite side of the brain
optic disk
a hole in the retina; it yields a blind spot which we dont experience as a "hole" as each eye compensates for the blind spot on the other
mimic endorphins, increase pleasure and decrease pain
active process of organizing stimulus input and giving it meaning
perceptual constancy
objects appear to be relatively stable despite changes in the stimulation of sensory receptors
perceptual set
readiness to percieve stimuli in a particular way
peripheral nervous system
-nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord which handles input and output of the CNS
-connects the brain and spinal cord to the other areas of the body
personality research
define, describe and measure the stability of behaviors and personality traits over time
recoreds biochemical changes in teh brain as they occur by detecting radioactive material has been injected or inhaled. LOOKS AT BRAIN FUNCTION
chemical signals which are found in natural body scents in humans and other species
physical dependence
person must continue to take to avoid withdrawal illness
physical effects of crack and cocaine
-constricted blood vessels
-dilated pupils
-increased heart rate, temperature and blood pressure
physical effects of LSD
-dilated pupils
-increased heart rate and blood pressure
-higher body temperature
-loss of appetite
-dry mouth and tremors
-sensory and emotional changes
physiological research
looks at genetic influences and factors on behavior
the quality of a tone from low to high, the number of times particles oscillate per second
place theory
different areas of the basilar membrane are sensitve to different frequencies
positive psychology
focus on the adaptive, creative, and positive aspects of human experience
-look at subjective experiences of positive emotions: contentment, happiness
-identify positive traits such as kindness, caring, resilience
-explore social e
psychoactive drugs
a substance that affets perception, mood, thinking, memory or behavior by changing the body's chemistry
psychodynamic perspective
-concious and unconcious forces determine behavior
-behavior as an interplay between thoughts and feelings
-mental processes can conflict
psychological dependence
person must continue to take a drug to satisfy emotional cravings
the scientific investigation of mental processes and behavior

reflects the influences of: biological processes, individual differences, time and culture
psychometric research
looks at the measurement of behavior through the development of psychological tests
is behind the cornea which adjusts to contol the amount of light that enters the eye
do you get consistent results over time?
REM movement disorder
-usually in sleep the paralysis which normally occurs does not fuction ad a person actually acts out his dream
REM sleep
active brainwaves, increased heart rae and blood pressure, limp muscle state; 80% of REM is dream sleep; alternates on 90 minute cycles
response set
consistence in answers reflective of a patterned response (always, never... all the time)
resting potential
a neuron at its stable negative charge when inactive
retinal disparity
objects project images to different locations on the right and left retina which give a different view of the object.  the closer an item gets the greater the disparty between the images on the eyes
risks of MDMA/Ecstasy
-depression, confusion, sleep problems, severe anxiety
-muscle tension, teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, chills or sweating
-risk for people with circulatory or heart disease
-some evidence for longer te
CNS stimulant mediation often prescribed for ADHD; now sold as a street drug illegally
surrounding hypnosis increase suggestibility and create expectations
function best in dim light, primarily black/which brightness receptors, more sensitve to light than cones, no color sensation (120 million in humans)
sampling bias
skewed samples will give results which don't generalize
the colors purity, how diluted is it with black or white
stimulus detection process where our sense organs respond to and translate stimuli into nerve impulses sent to the brain
sensory adaptation (habituation)
over time neurons decrease activity in response to a constant stimulus
sensory/afferent neurons
carry info to the brain from the skin, muscles, or organs
involved in sleep, mood, depression, ocd
short-term insomnia
poor sleeping for 2-3 weeks caused by ongoing stressors as well as medical problems
signal detection theory
various factors influence our sensory judgement; often involves a process of decisions in addition to sensation
single-blind study
controls for subject bias by limiting their knowledge
size constancy
objects do not appear to change in size when viewed from different distances
sleep apnea
a "lack of breath" while sleeping; disrupts sleep patterns
-muscles at the back of the throat relax, obstructing the airway, breathig can actually stop causing awakenings
sleep talking
-can range from one word to a soliloquy
-no memory of the conversation
-usually short term
-sometimes because of stress or illness
sleep terror
-sudden awakening with physical behavior associated with intense fear
-screaming, fighting, trying to escape appear
-episodes last about 15 minutes
-person returns to sleep, unable to recall in the morning
-more common in
social desirability
give awers that are "correct" or "appropriate" and not necessarily true
social research
individual and group behaviors and responses across situations
sociocultural perspective
-identify social rules, roles and influences of groups on behavior
-explore the impact of cultural norms and values on behavior
somatic nervous system
sensory nerves relay info from the skin and muscles to the CNS about pain, temperature, and informs muscles when to act
subjects interpret their behaior as caused by something other than self
stage 1 of sleep
light sleep, small irregular brain waves, muscles relax
stage 2 of sleep
high peaking waves, sleep spindles, burst of electrical activity
stage 3 of sleep
deep sleep, delta waves, slow with high peaks
stage 4 of sleep
progressively more delta waves (deep sleep)
-man made substances related to mae hormones used to treat low levels of testosterone
-abused to enhance athletic performance/improve appearance
speed up activity in the CNS
stimulus detection
how intense does a stimulus need to be for us to recognize its presence?
random sample which represents the population as a whole
subliminal perception
can we be unaware of things and have them still have an impact?
Summation of Spano's beliefs
-hypnosis represents a voluntary action, brought about by expectations
-hypnotic behaviors are highly motivated, goal directed social behaviors
-hypnosis is not truly an altered state of conciousness
-good hypnotic subjects are mos
survey method
-large sample size possible
-questionnaires and interviews
-possibility for response bias exists
sympathetic nervous system
mobilizes body for action, stops digestion, increases oxygen to the blood for muscle responses, increases heart rate, dialates pupils, dry mouth, goose bumps
gaps between the neurons - often between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another
synaptic vessicles
release neurotransmitters which then bind with a dendrite receptor site
systematic observation
explores change in variables of interest
tactile sensation
three primary sensations : pressure, temperature, pain
terminal buttons
insulated by fatty material called the myelin sheath, which helps the nerve impulse travel faster 
the nervous system
the body's electrochemical communication system
-divided into two parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
the three levels of conciousness
1.) conscious: mental events we are aware of
2.) preconcious: mental events that can be brought to our awareness
3.) unconcious: mental events inaccessible to our awareness
a systematic way of organizing and understanding observations
the wave purity or mixture of sound
the progressive decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug
transient insomnia
lasts only a few nights, often due to anxiety or excitement
trichromatic theory
three types of color receptors in the retina; individual cones are most sensitve to either red, blue or green
may be 5th basic quality of tast (triggered by compounds of amino acids - pungent, the essence, savory, deliciousness of a food)
does it measure what it's supposed to measure?
anything which can be measured or described along a particular dimension
various factors involved in hypnosis
-Sensory distortions
-Post-hypnotic amnesia
in the inner ear; helps with balance and maintaining our equilibrium in space
Weber's law
the difference threshold is directly proportional to the magnitude of teh stimulus to which the comparison is being made
What are the four basica qualities of taste?
sweet, sour, salty, bitter

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