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to draw away from or deviate from the midline of the body
a scraping away of skin or mucous membrane a the result of an injury or by other mechanical means
the process of becoming accustomed to an unfamiliar environment
accommodative resistance
the application of a resistive force that controls the speed with which an individual is able to move, thereby allowing him to work at maximal resistance throughout the complete range of motion
acetyl Co-A
a substance that is formed from either pyruvate (breakdown of sugars) or beta oxidation (breakdown of fats) and is used to enter the Krebs cycle and generate energ in the form of ATP.
Acid-base balance
the mechanisms by which the pH of the body fluids are kept in state of balance so that the arterial blood is kept at a constant pH level of 7.35 to 7.45
a chronic disorder developing in the adult life characterized by increased massiveness of the bones, organs, and other body parts and elongation and enlargement of the bones of the extremities and certain head bones, esp. the frontal bone and jaws with en
one of the fibrous contractile proteins found in a myofibril.
active (dynamic) stretching
a technique in stretching muscle and tissue that requires muscle contraction through a range of motion; no outside force is involved.
active recovery
performing light aerobic exercise, stretching exercises or working other body parts to facilitate recovery after intense exercise to allow for more productive use of exercise time and to encourage blood flow to the muscles
the protein complex involved in muscle contraction and relaxation which is composed of actin and myosin protein filaments
having a rapid onset; sharp, severe
substances other than a foodstuff present in food as a result of production, processing, storage or packaging
to bring toward the midline of the body
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a high-energy molecule from which the body derives its energy; produced aerobically and anaerobcally, and stored in the body
the degree to which an individual follows a given prescribed program
adipose tissue
fatty tissue; connective tissue made up of fat cells
with, or in the presence of, oxygen
aerobic threshold intervals
used to develop ability to use oxygen while performing at a higher intensity; exercise is performed for a pre-determined time at anaerobic threshold combined with a period of active recovery.
calories used due to an increase in matabolicrate following exercise activities.
agonist (muscle)
muscle that is directly involved in contraction; primarily responsible for movement
absence of menstruation; somewhat more common in women engaging in excessive exercise
amino acids
the basic building blocks of proteins
anabolic androgenic steroids
a general cas of hormones of the male sex hormone testosterone which stimulates testosterone's tissue building and masculanizing properties
the metabolic processes which build up body tissue
outside the prescence of oxygen; not requiring any oxygen
anaerobic exercise
short-term, highly intense activities in which muscle fbers derive energy for contraction from stored internal energy sources without the use of oxygen from the blood
anaerobic glycolysis
the metabolyc pathway that uses glucose or stored glycogen for energy production without requiring oxygen
anatomical planes
hree planes of the human body in the anatomical position: sagittal, frontal, and transverse
condition characterized by a reduction below normal of the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the lood, often displaying symptoms of fatigue
angina pectoris
pain in the chest due to insufficient blood supply and oxygen to the heart; can be a crushing pain or substantial "pressure" sensation within the chest.
muscle that works against or in opposition of an agonist muscle
toward the front
anthropometric measurements
measurement and analysis of parts of the human body; examples: skinfold, girth, and body weight
protects key cell components by neutralizing the damaging effects of "free radicals," natural byproducts of cell metabolism.
the main arterial vessel; arises from the left venricle of the heart and carries blood to al parts of the body
a broad, flat tendinous sheet of connective tissue that extends from the fibrous wrapping of a muscle and conncts that muscle to adjacent structures, usually the wrappings of another muscle
abormal heart rhythm or beat
smaller divisions of the arteries as they get farther away from the heart and lead to capillaries
the heardening, thickening or loss of elasticity of the wall of an artery; precedes cardiovascular disease such as stroke and coronary artery disease; sometimes referred to as "hardening of the arteries."
place of union or junction between two or more bones; joint
the most common and serious form of arteriosclerosis; fatty substances and other debris collect in the inner lining of the arteries forming plaques that encroach upon the passageway and gradually obstruct the flow of blood; associated with a high-fat diet
athlete's heart
an enlarged heart muscle found in endurance athletes. Results of large, strong, muscle fibers in the heart's left ventricle which are well conditioned by pushing out a great volume of blood.
enzyme which acts to splie the ATP molecule
a high-energy molecle from which the body derives its energy
ATP-CP system
energy system that utilizes ATP and creatine phosphate
decrease in the cross-sectional size of a muscle due to lack of use or disease
autogenic inhibition
automatic relaxation reflex caused by excessive stimulation of Golgi tendon organs (GTO).
lacking in blood vessels or having a poor blood supply
the forcible separation or tearing of tissue from the body
axis of rotation
the imaginary line or point about which an object, such as a body or lever, rotates.
Ball-and-socket joints
triaxial joints constructed as they sound: a rounded or ball-shaped surface which fits into a concave hole or socket; i.e. hip and shoulder joints
a bouncing movement relying on gravity; ballitic stretching was once thought to be the best way to improve flexibility.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the lowest rate of energy metabolism a person at rest, 12-18 hours after eating; lowest rate of metabolism compatible to life
beta oxidation
process by which fat is brokn down in order to generate ATP.
beta-blockers (beta-adrenergic blocking agents)
medications that "block" or limit sympathetic nervous system stimulation; they act to slow the heart rate and decrease maximum heart rate, and are used for cardiovascular and othe rmedical conditions.
beta carotene
a carotenoid (pigment) found in yellow, orange and deep green vegetables which provides a source of Vitamin A when ingested; found to have antioxidant properties.
biaxial joint
joint that allows motion in two planes of motion; exampl condyloid joint such as the wrist
affecting two sides
bioelectrical impedance (BIA)
a method of determining body composition by measuring the body's resistance to elecrical flow; results ofthis method are greatly affected by proper hydration
blood doping
technique that consists of giving a blood transfusion to add red blood cells to increase the oxygen-carrying ability of the blood; risks include blood coagulation int he arteries presenting a risk of death.
body composition test
used to determine body fat percentage; examples: underwater or hydrostatic; skinfold; anthropometric; or bioelectrical impedance.
body mass index (BMI)
releative measure of body weight (in kg) to body height (in meters squared) for determining degree of obesity; BMI's over 30 are considered obese
Borg's scale (of perceived exertion)
scale with a numerical code to help participants tune into their bodies; usually from 0 to 10
brachial artery
the main artery of the arm, located in the upper inside of the arm; in CPR, the brachial artery is used to palpate the pulse of infants
slower than average resting heart rate due to increased efficiency of the heart through aerobic conditioning n an athlete; a heart rate less than 60 beats per minute
branched chain amino acids (BCAA)
amino acids L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-valine, which have a particular molecular structure that gives them their name; BCAA comprise 35% of muscle tissue; may be burned as fuel during highly intense training and at the end of long-distance events when
a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples; thought to reduce inflammation and edema and accelerate tissue repair
drugs that are designed to expand the bronchial tubes by relaxing the constricted bronchial smooth muscle, used by asthmaiscs; example: Proventil
actue or chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchial tubes
smallest tubes that supply air to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs
a lubricating and protective sac located between certain connective tissue, i.e., between tendon and bone, tendon and ligament, or other structures, usually in the vicinity of joints
chemical found in coffee, black tea, and cola drinks with an ability to stimulate the nervous system.
the amount of heat required to raise the temprature of one kilogram of water one Celsius degree between 14.5 an 15.5 degrees Celsius.
tiny blood channels that are the point of nutrient exchange
carbohydrate (CHO)
an essential nutrient that provides energy to the body; most efficient fuel for oher body functions
cardiac cycle
the period from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next; the systolic and diastolic movement and interval in between
cardiac muscle
one of the body's three types of muscles; found only in the heart
pertaining to the heart and lungs
referring to the heart, lungs and blood vessels working together to deliver oxygen to the body and remove unwanted waste products such as carbon dioxide
cardiorespiratory endurance
ability to perform large muscle movement over a sustained period
referring to the heart, blood and blood vessels
cardiovascular disease (CVD)
general term for any disease of the heart and blood vessels; coronary artery disease, hypertenstion, stroke, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease and valvular heart disease
cartoid artery
located in the neck; commonly used for palpating the pulse
dense connective tissue that covers the joint surfaces of the bones; the area where bones meet this smooth, semi-opaque material provides a frictionless surface for the joint.
the breaking down of body tissue, including all processes in which complex substances are progressively broken down into simpler ones
subcataneous fat (fat stored beneath the skin); although no different from other fat, it has a dimpled appearance caused by the structure of the skin fibers covering it
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
damage to the brain, often resulting in a loss of function, from impaired blood supply to part of the brain; more commonly known as a stroke
cervical curve
curve in the rear neck formed by the seven vertebrae found between the base of the skull to the base of the neck; slightly concave
cevical vertebra
one of seven vertebrae found between the base of the skull and the base of the neck
a type of lipid that builds inside tissues; the body produces it or it is obtained from eating animal products
wearing away or softening of articular cartilage, usually occuring in the back of th ekneecap; a cracking sound in the knee or grating feeling is typical
descriptive of a condition that persists over a long period of time
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
disease process or condition, such as asthma, bronchitis or emphysema in which the ability of the lungs to perform ventilation properly is decreased
circuit training
a form of training that takes the participant thorugh a series of exercise stations
circular movement of a limb; combination of flexion, abduction, extension and adduction movements.
the main constiutent of connective tssue such as ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
complete proteins
foods that contain all essential amino acids: most meats and dairy products
concentric (contraction/action)
a muscle develops enough force to overcome a resistance, thus shortening the msucle and creating a movement in the direction of the pull; a shortening of the muscle due to a contraction.
means of heat transfer through direct contact
condyloid joint
biaxial joint with movement ability that includes flexion, extenston, abduction, adduction and circumduction; partial ball-and-socket joint; ellipsoid joint; i.e. the wrist joint
connective tissue
tissue that binds together and supports various structures of the body; ligaments, tendons and fascia
continuous training
conditioning exercise such as walking, ogging, cycling in which the prescribed intensity is maintained continuously between 50 and 85% of maximal oxygen consumption and for a prolonged period of time
shortening or tightening of a muscle; two phases being concentric and eccentric
contra-indicated (movements)
movements that present a very high risk of injury and should normally be avoided
means of heat transfer through the movement of air or other particles in a medum; simlilar to the effect of a fan blowing on body; a means of eliminating heat
the tapering-off period of very light activity at the eend of a vigorous workout; slowly cools the body down to a nearly normal core temperature
corornary artery disease (CAD)
major form of cardiovascula disease; almost always the cause of atherosclerosis; also called coronary heart disease (CHD)
creatine monohydrate
thought to increase recovery during intense training by providing a somewhat elevated level of creatine phosphate stores in muscles
creatine phosphate (CP)
a high-energy phosphate molecule that is stored in cells and can be used to immediately resynthesize ATP
creatine phosphate system
system of transfer of chemlcal energy for resythesis of ATP supplied rapidly and without oxygen from the breakdown of CP; also called the ATP-CP system
projections of myosin molecules tat link with actin filaments to create a grabbing, pulling effect, resulting in contraction
the use of cold therapy for treatment of injury; sprains, tears, twists, bruises and bleeding under the skin respond favorably; use repeated applications for 24-48 hours or until external swelling is gone.
a bluish discoloration,k especially of the skin and mucous membranes, due to reduced hemoglobin in the blood.
anatomical term meaning internal; located further beneath the body surface than the superficial structures
stopping of atrial or ventrical fibrillation by the use of drugs or often by electroshock
having less than optimal level of body water
dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
an androgenic hormone which decreases in level with age
delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
muscle soreness that occurs 24-48 hours after intense exercise, thought to be microscopic tears in muscle or connective tissue
relaxation phase of the cardiac cyle; the resting phase of the heartbeat during which blood fills the ventricles
diatolic blood pressure
the amount of pressure maintained in the arteries between heartbeats as the heart relaxes and fills; shouldn't be 105 or greater
anatomical term meaning farthest away from the point of attachment or body's midline; i.e. the foot is distal to the knee
medication that produces an increase in the volume of urine and sodium that is excreted
the backside
bending backward of the hand or foot
dynamic variable-resistance (isokinetic)
strength training exercises and/or equipment that automatically vary the resistance throughout the movement range
dymanic flexibility
the range of motion about a joint when speed is involved during physical performance; strength, power, neuromuscular coordination and tissue resistance are all factors
shortness of breath or difficult breathing; the subjective feelig of being out of breath; caused by heart or lung disorders, strenuous activity; high anxitey or stress
eccentric contraction (action)
a controlled lengthening of the muscle duing its contraction; the resistance overcomes the muscular force and the muscle lengthens
a thin body type; low fat content
swelling due to abnormal accumulation of fulid in tissues or cavities
ejection fraction
the percentage of the total volume of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during contraction of the heart
the ability of a tissue or other material to return to its original size or shape after stretching or elongation
the minerals: sodium, potassium and chlorine, which are present in the body as electrically charged particles called ions
Electron Transport System/Chain (ETS or ETC)
process by which electrons are transferred between high-energy intermediates to generate additional ATP in the presence of oxygen; occurs after the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria
emergency medical services (EMS)
local system for obtaining emergency assistance from the police, fire department or ambulance service; most are reached by 911.
chronic lung disease characterized by loss of air sacs resulting in a decreased ability to exchange gases
pertaining to a gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream; opposite of eocrine
endocrine glands
organs which secrete hormones into the blood or lymph system to regulate or influence general chemcial changes in teh body or the activities of other organs; major endocrine glands are: thyroid, adrenal, pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries and testi
a person whose body build is soft and round with fat throughout the body
a natural chemical released by the body during exercise; helps relieve pain and leave the participant with a "natural high."
energy balance theory
body weight will stay the same when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure, and that a positive or negative energy balance will cause weight gain or lss
proteins that speed specific chemical reactions
epiphyseal cartilage
the place where growth occurs at the ends of the bones; if it's damaged during growth, the bone may not reach its full potential
ergogenic aids
thought to enhance energy availabilty or utilization to imporve endurance or strength
essential amino acids
eight of the twenty-three different amino acids needed to make proteins in adults; called essential because they mus be obtained from the diet since they cannot be manufactured by the body
essential fat
fat that cannot be produced by the body and must be supplied by the diet; linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid are essential fats
essential nutrients
nutrients that must be supplied by the diet because it cannot be manufactured by the body
having normal menstruation
turning outward
exercise prescription
a physician's recommendation or referral for exercise
exertional headaches
pain triggered by a variety of exercise activities ranging from weight lifting to jogging to sexual intercourse
to straighten; movement of a body part away from the body; to increase the angle at a joint
external rotation
rotary motion away from the midline of the body
Fartlek training
alternates fast and slow activity over varied terrain, utilizing perceived exertion
sheet or band of fibrous tissue that lies deep to the sckin or forms an attachment for muscles and organs and covering individualmuscles
fast-twitch (Type II) fiber
large muscle fiber characterized by its fast speed of contraction; utilized in high intensity, short duration exercises
fat-free mass
that part of the body composition that represents eveything but fat: blood, bones, connective tissue, organs and muscle; the same as lean body mass, also called fat-free weight
fat soluble
able to be dissolved in fat; relating to vitamins, those that re stored in the body fat, principally the liver: Vitamins A, D, E and K
fat utilization training zone (Theoretical)
theoretical range just prior to the onset of blood lactate which is thought to support the highest percentage of fat utilization prior to the poin where the body can no longer perform aerobic exercise
state of decreased capacity for work due to previous workload; working a muscle to fatigue refers to working to "failure" the inability to perform anothe repeition in good form
breaks down to fatty acids and glycerol. Fat is stored energy; it cushions organs and body parts and insulates the body.
the bliding block of fats; an important nutrient for the production of energy during prolonged, low-intensity exercise.
bending of a limb at the joint; decreasing the angle of the joint
cleansing a muscle of metabolc toxins by increasing blood supply to it through exertion
forced repetitions
a weight training system where assistance is given by a spotter to perform additional repetitions of an exercise when muscles an no longer complete the postive contraction on their own
highly reactive molecules which contain an odd number of electrons and target the body's tissues; thought to be involved in generation of some cancers
frontal plane
an imaginary longitudinal section that divies the body into anterior and posterior halves; lies at a right angle to the sagittal plane
the supporto which a lever rotates hen moving or lifting something
fuctional capacity
the maximum phyiscal performance represented by maximal oxygen consumption
the manner or style of walking
general liability insurance
insurance covering the carrier for bodily injury or property damage resulting from general negligence
hormone responsible for increasing the rate of gluconeogenesis hen blood sugar becomes low; regulates blood sugar levels with insulin which inhibits glucagon and helps store sugar when blood sugar becomes too high
simple sugar; the orm in which all carbohydrates are used as the body's principal energy source; transported in the blood and metabolized in the tissues
gluteus maximus, medius and minimus; the hip extensor muscles, also called the buttocks or glutes
glycemic index
a rating scale which measures the increase in blood sugar and the rise in insulin levels following the consumption of a given food
a colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid (chemically, an alcohol) that is obtained from fats and oils andused to retain moisture and add sweetness to foods; forms the backbone to which fatty acids attach to form trglycerides. It has been shown to increase wa
the storage form of carbohydrates in the muscles and bloood; composed of chains of glucose molecules
the breakdown of glycogen in order to generate glucose which can eneter glycolyis and geneate ATP for energy
Golgi tendon organ (GTO)
sensory organ (prorioceptors) within a tendon that, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of the entire muscl group to protet against damage from stretching the muscle
graded exercise test (GXT)
a treadmill or cycle-ergometer test that measures or estimates maximum aerobic capacity by gradually increasing the intensity until a person has reached a maximal level or voluntary exhaustion
approx. 1/5 of a level of a teaspoon
grand mal seizure
major motor seizure characterized by violent and uncrontrollable muscle contractions
growth hormone (GH)
a hormone that regulates cel division and protein synthesis necessary for nomal growth; the growt hormone exerts a direct effect on protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and controls the rate of skeletal, connective (collagenous) tissue and visceral
the absence of disease or injury along with physial, mental and social well-being
health related physical fitness
components of physical itness thatare associated with some aspect of health; these important fctors include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular endurance, muscular strength, body composition, and joint flexibility
heart attack
see myocardial infarction
heart rate (HR)
number of times the heart beats in one minute
heart rate reserve (HRR)
the result of subratcting the resting heart rate from the maximal heart rate; represents the working heart-rate range between rest and maximal heart rate within which all activity occurs; used in the Karvonen method of calculating target heart rates
muscular organ approximately the size of a fist that contains four chambers which pumps blood though the body
heat cramps
painful cramps occurring in muscles caused from laboring in hot conditions in which excessive amounts of electrolytes are lost in the sweat
heat exhaustion
the most common heat related illness; usually the result of intense exercse in a hot, humid environment and charactrized by profuse sweating which results in fluid and electrolyte loss, a drop in blood pressure, ligt-headedness, nausea, vomiting, decrease
heat stroke
caused when the body generates more heat through muscle activity than it can dissipate; can lead to permanent damage or death. Symptoms include red dry skin, cessation of perspiration, fast strong pulse, dizziness or fainting. A true medical emergency, h
protein that holds and transports oxygen within the bloo consisting of an iron-containing pigment called heme an a simple protein, globin
protrustion or projection of part of an organ through te wall of the cavity that normally contains it; i.e. protrusion of the abdominal contents into the groin (inguinal hernia) or through the abdominal wall (abdominal hernia)
herniated disc
a condition in which the disc between two vertebrae of the spine bulges backward, often compressing a nerve root and compromising its function
high energy phosphates
molecules within the body that provide the energy to drive chemical reactions within the body; example, ATP
high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
a type of cholesterol that has scavenger characteristics in removng sme fats, making it beneficial; exercise can increase the production of HDL
the tendencey toward stability and balance in normal body states
chemical substances which originate in an organ, gland,or body part and are conveyed by the blood to affect functions in other parts of the body
human growth hormone (HGH)
hormone secreted by th anterior pituitary gland in response to various stressful stimuli such as heat, starvation and intense physical stress (e.g. exercise): the priciple functions of HGH are to stimulate anabolism and to mobilize stored fat (triglycerid
hyrdrstatic weighing
a body composition analysis technique that consists of an underwater test used to measure body fat and lean body mass percentages;based on the relative density of fat and lean tissue
having elevated cholesterol in the blood
extreme or excessive extension of a joint beyond the normal range of motion
having abnormally high content of glucose in the blood
excess of lipids in the blood
increase in cell growth through splitting of cells
high blood pressure, or the elevation of blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg.
abnormally high body temperature
increase in the cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to progressive resistance traning
greater-than-normal rate of breathing that results in an abnormal loss of carbon dioxide from the blood; dizziness may occur
deficiency of sugar in the blood commonly caused by too much insulin, too little glucose, or too much execise in the insulin-dependent diabetic
deficiency of potassium in the blood
lack of activity or energy
abnormally low body temperature
incomplete proteins
foods that do not contain all the essential amino acids
independent contractors
indiviuals who conduct business independently on a contract basis and are not employees of an organization or business
anatomical term meaning situated below or near the feet in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of superior
informed consent
voluntary acknowledgment of the purpose, procedures and specific risks of an activity in which one intends to engage
nerve root extended from a particular vertebrae to atach to a given muscle or part of the body
attachment point of a muscle that is more distal or inferior; attachment point of a muscle onto the more moveable structure
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
a form of diabetes caused by the destruction of th insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas which leads to little or no insulin secretion; generally develops in childhood and requires regular insulin injections
the physological stress on the body during exercise; indicats how hard the body should be working to achieve a training effect; workload; example, percent 1RM or percent maximal heart rate
internal rotation
rotary motion toward the midline of the body; example, internally rotating the hip to point the knees and toes inward
interval training
exercise perfomed in an intermittent manner using a pre-established spacing of work and rest intervals; by changing the duration of work and rest intervals, a specific energy transfer system can be mphasized and overloaded
turning inward
insufficient blood flow to some part of the body resulting in decresed oxygen availability
refers to a type of contraction where the speed of movement is fixed and the resistance varies in accordance with the muscular force exerted
working a muscle against an immovable object; tension is developed but no mechanical work is performed; contraction of a muscle in which shortening or lengthening is prevents; involves muscular force equal to, but not greater than the resistance
type of muscle contaction performed while equal tension is maintained on the muscle and the length of the muscle is decreased or lengthened
part of the Olympic lift known as the "clean and jerk" where the liftr drives the barbell from his or her shoulders overhead to a locked position
point where two bones come together; articulation
Karvonen formula
a mathematical calculation for determining target heart rates: [(220-age) - (RHR) x (50-85%)] + RHR - THR.
Kegel exercises
strengthens the pubococcygeus muscles; can be especially beneficial for women in the childbearing years
ketone bodies
formed when fatty acids are oxidized; a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet can result in ketosis, the formation of excessive ketone bodies
study of human movement
kinesthetc awareness
ability of individuals to feel where their bodies ar in relation to space; a body awareness
knee wraps
elastic strips used to wrap knees for better support when performing squats and dead lifts during extremely heavy lifts
Korotkoff sounds
five different sounds created by the pulsing of the plood through the brachial artery; proper distinction of these sounds is necessary to determine blood pressure
Krebs cylce
cycle by which high-energy intermdiates are formed prior to generating ATP through Electron Transport System
abnormal outward curvature of the upper back; i.e., hunchback or dowager's hump
increase in the normal inward curve of the low back, combined with an increased outward curve of the thoracic spine
lactic acid (lactate)
a by-product of anaerobic energy production known to cause localized muscle fatigue when it accumulates during short-term, high-intensity exercise; it is associated with fatigue
lactic acid system
see anaerobic gycolysis
lacto-ovo vegetarians
vegetarians who will eat dairy or eggs
anatomical term meaning away from the midline of the body, toward the side
slang referring to te latissimus dorsi; the large muscles of the back that are the prime movers for adduction, extension and hyperextension of the shoulder joints
law of acceleration
force (F) acting on a body in a given direction is equal to the body's mass (m) multiplied by the body's acceleration (a) in that direction: F=ma, or a=F/m
law of inertia
the tendency of all objects and matter to remain at rest, or, if moving, to continue moving in the same straight line unless acted on by an outside force; proportional to body mass
a rigid bar that rtates arund a fixed support(fulcurm) in response to an applied force; a lever transmits and modifies force or motion; the bones act as levers in the body
legal responsibility
a band of non-elastic tough connective tissue connecting the articular ends of the bones; frequently the stabilizing elements of a joint
fats or fat-like substances
vehicle tht transports fat throughout the body; made up of protein, fat and cholesterol
movement from one place to another
a normal curvatureof the lower back; this can also refer to an excessive inward curature (hyperlordosis) or lack of curvature in the lumbar area (hypolordosis); hyperlordosis predisposes the participant to a higher risk of injury
low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
plasma complex of lipds and proteins that ontains relatively more cholesterl and triglycerides and less protein; high LDL levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease
lumbar cuve
curve which is formed from the five vertebrae found in the lower back; this curve is slightly concave
maximal heart rte (MaxHR, HRmax or MHR)
maximal number of times an individual's heart beats within one minute; MaxHR is determined in part by age and genetics
maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max)
the highest volume of oxygen a person can consume during exercise; maximum aerobic capacity; VO2mas is a measure of maximal cardiovascular performance
anatomical term meaning situated or occuring in the middle of the body; toward the midline
meniscal tear
a tear in the meniscal carilage (found in the knee); torn meniscus, a common and painful injury, plagues many athletes and dancers
cessation of menstruation in the huan female; usually occuring between the ages of 48 and 50
person whose body shape consists mostly of muscle, bone and connective tissue with a predisposition to muscular development
metabolic equivalents (MET)
a simplified system for classifying physical activities where one MET is equal to the resting oxygen consumption, which is approx. 3.5 milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute (3.5 ml/kg/min.)
metabolic pathways
a series of consecutive enzymatic reactions that produce specific products; pathways involved in metabolic processes; examples, the breakdwn of glucose, the storing of glycogen, the breakdown of fats, etc.
metabolic rate
the rate at which the body utilizes energy; exercise raises the metabolic rate
the sum total of all chemical reactions taking place in a living organism; typically broken down into the energy producing and absorbing processes that are occuring in the body metabolism describes the energy utilized by the body
the division of music into measures or bars; most music for exercise purposes may be counted in increments of 4, 8, 16, or 32
inorganic substances needed in the diet in small amounts to help regulate bodily functions
specialized subcellular structures located within body cells that contain oxidative enzymes needed by the cells to metabolize foodstuffs into energy sources; they are the source of energy in the cell and are involved in protein synthesis and lipid metabol
the process of learning by observing and imitating others' behavior
monosaturated fats
a type of unsaturated fat (liquid at room temperature) that has one spot available on the fatty acid for the addition of a hydrogen atom; moderate intake is associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular disease; example, oleic acid in olive oil; general
the disease rate; the ratio of sick to well persons in a community
the death rate or ratio of deaths tht take place to expected deaths
motive force
the force that starts or causes a movement
motor learning effect
improvement in performance during the initial weeks of strength training due to more efficient motor unit utilization
motor unit
a motor nerve and all the muscle fibers it stimulates; in the quadriceps muscle, one neuron can activate as many as 1,000 fibers; in the eye, where great precision is required, one nerve cell may control only three fibers.
muscle cramp
painful involuntar contractions due to overexertion and imbalance of oxygen, minerals, and carbon dioxide; stretch the cramped muscle with one hand and squeeze and release the body of the muscle rhythmically with the other hand. Deep breathing helps to r
muscle fiber
a muscle cell
muscle spindle
the sensory organ within a muscle that is sensitive to stretch and thus protects the muscle from being stretched too far; muscle spindles cause the muscle to contract instead of allowing it to stretch during rapid stretching
muscle tear
the tearing of a muscle bundle causedby severe stretching accompanied by acute pain and spasm; a muscle tear is called a strain
muscle tone
the degree of tension and vigor in a gross muscle; muscle tone is increased through weight training, which results in a greater number of muscle fibers "firing" while at rest.
muscular endurance
the ability to sustain a sub-maximal contraction (isometric) over time, or the ability to perform a maximum number of sub-maximal repetitions (isotonic)
muscular strength
the ability of the muscle to exert force; usually measured with one maximal repetition or with a hand dynamometer
myocardial infarction (MI)
an interruption of blood supply to the heart; may be caused by blockage of a heart artery caused by atherosclerosis or a blood clot; MI causes tissue damage to the heart muscle. It may begin with a crushing chest pain that moves to the left arm, neck or u
the functional units within muscle fibers that cause contractions; the more myofibrilla a person has, the greater his or her strength
protein that holds and stores oxygen within the muscules and tissues
thick contractile protein in an myofibril which overlaps with actin to produce contractions
myotatic stretch reflex
muscular reflex created by excessive muscle spindle stimulation; prevents tissue damage during peiods of rapid muscle stretching
negagive (eccentric)
the part of a resistance exercise when the weight is lowered
weight training technique in which the exercser must obtain assistance to perform a concentric contraction to raise the weight; extremely damaging to connective tissue and often leads to DOMS
failure of a person to perform as a reasonable and prudent professinoal would perform under similar circumstances
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
most common form of diabetes; typically develops in adulthood; characterized by a reduced sensitivity of the insulin target cells to available insulin and is usually associated with obesity
nutrient density
quantitative analysis of the amount of nutrients versus the amount of calories in a given food; nutrient-dense foods provide more nutrients than calories
BMI in excess of 25
definitions vary, but typially BMI over 30, or percent body fat over 30
short for external and/or internal obliques; muscles to either side of the abdominals that rotate and flex the trunk
one repetition maximum (1-RM)
the amount of resistance that can be moved through the range of motion one time before the muscle is temporarily fatigued and the motion cannot be performed with good form again
onset of blood lactate (OBLA)
point at which lactate begins to accumulate faster in the blood than it can be removed; this point is often referred to as a "lactate" or "anaerobic" threshld and is the point where the body begins to get a high percentage of its energy from sugars as opp
attachment of a muscle that is more superior or proximal
orthostaic hypotension
drop in blood pressure associatd with rising to an erect position
shoe inserts; can be helpful for persons who pronate (foot rotating inward) or supinate (foot rolling out)
degenerative joint disease occuring chiefly in older persons; characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage, hypertrophy of the bones, and changes in the synovial membrane
thinning of the bones; density diminishes as calcium absorption is reduced; exercised bones become denser and stronger as long as dietary calcium is adequate
to work intensely and viorously beyond what you are used to; resistance, intensity, duration or frequency can be increased by increments of up to 10% in a workout to achieve overload i a rogressive manner (followed by 48 hours for recovery)
overload principle
one of the principles of human performance that states the beneficial adaptations occur in response to demands applied to the body at levels beyond a certain threshold (overload) but within the limits of tolerance and safety
excessive hard training day after day without proper rest to ensure recovery
doing too much, too intensely, too frquently, or for twoo long; many injuries are caused by overuse
overuse injury
an injury caused by activity that places too much stress on one area of the body over an extended period
more than "normal" body weight based on standard charts after adjustment for height, body build, and age; overweight is not the same as overfat
use of oxygen to split or breakdown molecules; excample: when oxygen is available, fat can be broken down (oxidized) by the oxen molecule.
oxygen consumption
the amount of oxygen the body can take in and utilize
oxygen debt
the extra oxygen (above normal resting levels) needed to recover from physical activity
oxygen deficit
a temporary shortage of oxygen due to exercise
use of hands and/or fingers to detect anatomical structures or an arterial pulse
a pounding or racing of the heart; associated with emotional responses or with certain heart disorders
perceived exertion
the subjective perception of execise effort; see Borg's scale (of perceived exertion)
the alternating of training intensities over periods of days, weeks, months, or years
peripheral vascular resistance
impedance of blood flow in the peripheral (farthest from the center) blood vessels
high-energy phosphate molecules that can be broken down for immediate use by the cells, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP)
physical fitness
a set of attributes that relates to the ability to perform physial activity
physiological adaptations
changes that occur as a result of stimuli to the various systems involved in life functions (muscular, cardiovascular, skeletal, etc.)
the study of essential life processes, functions, and activities
of or pertaining to the foot
ankle movement pointing toes toward ground, or away from body
a point in training at which one no longer sees improvements from one's current exercise routine; maintaining one's muscular size, strength, and/or athletic performance in spite of increased training efforts
lead plates of weight used in resistance training
plyometric exercises
the sudden eccentric loading and stretching of muscles followed by their forceful concentric contraction; the sudden stretch causes a forceful contraction, i.e., jumping back onto the bench
polyunsaturated fats
a bond of at least three fatty acids with two or more points of unsaturation; polyunsaturared fats are found in raw nuts, some vegetables and grains; preferable to saturated fats.
positive (concentric)
the part of a resistance exercise when the exerciser lifts the weight by pushing or pulling
back portion or toward the back; example,a tendon located behind the inner ankle is the posterior tibialis tendon
pertaining to the period of time after menopause
the speed at which one can apply a force over a given distance: Power = Force X Distance/Time
prime mover
a muscle or set of muscles that acts directly to bring about a specific movement; most body movements are a combined action of many muscles
progressive overload
incremental increases the workload, frequency, intensity, duration, load perception, interval time, number of repetitions or number of sets.
rotation of a limb toward the midline of the body; turning the palm downward or flattening te arch of the foot; pronation is a common problem which could predispose an athlete to injury
lying face down in a horizontal position
awareness of the body's relative position to the outside world; information from proprioceptors and the eyes is interpreted by the brain to allow pstural alignment and balance to be maintained
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
a technique for increasing flexibility; the muscle is stretched, isometrically contracted, then stretched farther
a sensory receptor that aids in judging body position and changes in position; roprioceptors ar located in muscles, joints, tendons, and sensory hair cells in the balace organ of the inner ear
muscles working together to create a certain movement
food substances formed of amino acids; functions to build and repair tissue for hormone production and enzyme function; consist of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen
scapluar abduction
anatomical term meaning closer to the trunk of the body; nearest the point of attachment or nearest the center ofthe body
affecting the lungs or lung tissue
pyruvic acid/pyruvate
end product of the glycolytic pathway; three-carbon metabolite that in aerobic conditions becomes acetyl Co-A and enters the Krebs cyble, or, under anaerobic conditions, will become lactic acid
quadriceps, the four thigh muscles that extend the knee
Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation: the immediate treatment for most sudden athletic injuries
radial artery
the artery in the wrist commonly used to take teh pulse, located above the wrist, directly below the base of the thumb generally considered the safest site for pulse monitoring
ROM (Range of Motion)
maximum motion allowed by the muscles, joints, ligamets, tendons and the structure of the bones
rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
developed by Borg, this scale provides a standard means for evaluating a participant's peception of their physical exertion; original scale was 6-20; revised is 0-10
reciprocal innervation
reflex utilized with stretch reflex to inhibit activity of an opposing muscle group

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