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Classification of Organisms


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What is a plant's primary structural molecule?
Cellulose (in cell walls)
Mutualistic Symbiosis
Occurs when both organisms benefit from the relationship that is essential for each of their survival.
Parasitic Symbiosis
Occurs when one organism benefits from the other and the other's detriment without killing it.

EG Virus
Describe Alternation of Generation
Plants life cycle that alternates between Sporophyte and Gametophyte.
What 6 characteristics describe plants?
1. Multicellular
2. Eukaryotic
3. Autotrophs = Photosynthetic
4. Specialized tissue and cells
5. Non-motile
6. Primary storage = starch
7. Primary structural component =cellulose
What is a plant's primary storage molecule?
What is a plants phylogenetic tree look like?
Starts with Green Algae
Non-Vascular Seedless - liverworts, moss
Vascular Seedless - ferns, whisks
Vascular Seeded - Gymnosperms (conifers
and Angiosperms (flowered plants/fruits)
Describe 3 characteristics of a seed.
1. They are young protected embryos
2. Have food supply to travel with
3. Seed is coated for protection
Describe 3 characteristics of a spore.
1. Unicellular
2. No food supply
3. Unprotected and exposed
What are seeds?
Multicellular reproductive bodies with nutritive tissue enclosed in a seed coat
What are spores?
Minute unicellular reproductive cells that gives rise to individual offspring in plants (and certain fungi and protista)
What is a Gametophyte?
A haploid plant that produces gametes
What is a sporophyte?
Diploid plants that produce spores.
Which generation of plants is more advanced?
Describe the anatomy of a plant.
1. Root System - absorb H2O and dissolve minerals
2. Rhizoid - absorbing root like for some fungus and non vascular plants
3. Shoot System - above ground parts
4. Leaf - photosynthesis
5. Cuticle - leaf's waxy coating
6. Stoma - leaf opening
Describe a Net Ventation pattern.
"V" on leaves of dicots
Which is the largest Algae?
Brown Algae - Kelp
Give an example of a mutualistic symbiotic relationship.
E. Coli lives in our gut and supplies us with vitamin K and aids in lipid digestion. We provide it with a safety environment with plenty of nutrients.
Which Protista is most plant like and why?
Green Algae

1. Almost all are photosynthetic
2. Has chloroplasts
3. Has cellulose
4. Has pectin
5. Lives in fresh water
Describe 4 characteristics of Red Algae.
1. Mostly marine, some fresh water
2. Have chlorphyll a and phycobilin
3. Flexible
4. Slippery
Describe the anatomy of brown algae.
1. Holdfast (KW roots)
2. Stipe (KW stem)
3. Blades (KW leaves)
4. Bladder (KW floatation device)
What are algae?
Photosynthetic protists
Many single-celled
What 3 types of Algae are there?
Red Algae - Nori sushi wrap
Brown Algae - Seaweed
Green Algae - Most plant-like
Describe 6 characteristics of Brown Algae.
1. The largest algae
2. Cool or temperate marine waters
3. Most giant kelp, AKA seaweed
4. Microscopic to 20 m long
5. Photosynthetic
6. Commercial uses: icecream
What is extracellular digestion and what organism uses this?
Fungi secrete digestive enzymes to break down food outside their body into molecules they can absorb.
What are the 4 major groups of fungi?
1. Club Fungi - mushrooms
2. Zygomycetes - black bread mold
3. Sac Fungi - yeast (single celled)
4. Imperfect Fungi - pathogenic ie Athletes foot, Candida
What are 4 characteristics of Fungi?
1. Heterotrophs (Decomposers)
2. Mostly multicelled
3. Mostly saprobes: take nutrients from non-living organic matter and cause decay
4. Some parasites: take nutrients from living hosts EG Athletes foot
What physical characteristic does amoeboid protozoans have that make it animal like?
Pseudopods: fake feet
What organism is a ciliated protozoan (animal-like)?
Paramecium: cilia and flagella for locomotion
What is a lysogenic pathway?
Virus lives in the host cell so that it may replicate its genes in the next generation. Host cell only dies when instructed to at a later date.
Which Protistas are fungi-like, plant-like and animal-like?
Fungi = Slime mold
Plant = Green seaweed
Animal = Amoeba
What 4 physical characteristics describe protistas?
1. Nucleus and organelles
2. Flagella and cilia (locomotion)
3. Most are single-celled
4. Cell division by mitosis and meiosis

May be multicellular, and have chloroplasts.
What are 2 examples of fungi-like protistas and what characteristic do they share with fungi?
1. Slime Molds
2. Water Molds

They form spores like fungi does
What is the lowest organism in the food chain and where is it found?
Phytoplankton; ocean
What are animal-like protistas called?
What 2 physical characteristics describe a protozoan?
1. Microscopic
2. Heterotrophic
Which prokaryote is more similar to eukaryotes?
What 2 characteristics define a virus?
1. It must have genetic material and a protein coat
2. It cannot reproduce itself (relies on host cell to reproduce)
What is a bacteriophage?
A virus, or group of viruses, that infect bacterial cells.
How does a virus multiply?
1. Attachment: to specific host
2. Penetration: whole virus or genetic material enters cytoplasm
3. Replication: viral RNA & DNA take over host's machinery and make viral nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes
4. Assembly: of nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes to make new viral particles
5. Release: Lytic pathway or lysogenic pathway
What is a lytic pathway?
Viral enzymes destroy the host's cell wall and viral particles escape.
What 6 physical characteristics describe bacteria?
1. No nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
2. Only 1 chromosome (circular)
3. Usually have a cell wall
4. Reproduction by Prokaryotic Fission
5. Metabolically diverse (an/aerobic)
6. Different shapes (coccus, baccilus, sprioleum)
What are 3 Eubacteria organisms?
Cyanobacteria - photoautotroph
Lactobaccilus - chemoenterotroph
E. Coli - chemoenterotroph
What is a gram stain used for ?
To test bacteria for the presence of a thick or thin layer of peptodiglycan in the cell wall.
What kingdom do Lactobacillus belong to?
What kingdom do E. Coli belong to?
What kingdom do Cyanobacteria belong to?
What are 3 examples of pathogenic eubacteria?
E. Coli: if it gets in the blood stream = diarrhea, dehydration, possible death

Clostridium Botulism: botulism toxin in human body causes paralyses = suffocation, death

Clostridium Tetani: tetanus toxin causes skeletal muscle spasms = suffocation, death
What structural characteristics do Archaebacteria have in addition to all bacteria?
1. Plasma membrane
2. Ribosomes
What are the 2 types of prokaryotes?
Eubacteria (true bacteria)
and Archaebacteria
What does pathogenic mean?
Disease causing
What structural characteristics do bacteria have?
1. Plasma membrane
2. Circular DNA

Some also have a cell wall and plasmids

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