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Chapter 2 Part 2


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describe the structure of dna
double helix, spiral ladder
Functional groups
Also attached to the carbon skeleton, in which other elements from bonds with carbon and hydrogen atoms. Each type has a specific arrangement of atoms that confers characteristic chemical properties upon organic molecules
3 functional groups of amino acid
amino group, acidic carboxyl group, side chain
DNA fingerprinting
used in research and in courst of law to ascertain whether a person's DAN matches the DNA obtained from samples; certain DNA segments contain base sequences that are repeated several itmes, the number of repeat copies in one region and the number of regions subject to repeat are different from one person to another
Molecules that contain mainly nonpolar covalent bonds (fearing) - they are not very water soluble (animal fats/vegetable oils)
water as solvent
dissolves other ionized & polar substances, due to polarity of water molecules
small organic molecules can combine into very large molecules - usually polymers
what are nucleotides, what elements are they composed of
the monomers of nucleic acids, a nucleic acid is a chain of repeating nucleotieds; each nucleotide of DNA has nitrogenous base, pentose sugar and phosphate groups
further addion of amino acids to a tripeptide results in the formation of a chain like peptide (4-9 amino acids) or polypeptide (10-2000 or more)
How do inorganic and organic molecules differ
inorganic compou7nds usually are small and usually lack carbon. Organic substances always contain carbon, usually contain hydrogen, and always have ccovalnt bonds
a large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of many identical or similar small building-block molecules called monomers
basic structure of amino acids
amino and carboxyl group, side chain is different in each acid
A highly branched polymer of glucose
containing thousands of subunits; functions as
a compact store of glucose molecules in liver
and muscle fibers (cells).
pH scale
0 to 14, 7 is neutral, below 7 acidic, above 7 alkaline(base)
mease of h+ concentration of a solution, moles per liter
small building-block molecules (make up polymers). Usually the reactions that join two is a dehydration sysntesis
basic structure of steriod, lixt examples and ufncions
lipids composed of 4 carbon rings, more compact; sterols, cholesterol, sex hormones, bile salts, vitamin d
Inorganic molecules
Inorganic compounds lack carbon and are structurally simple - include water and many salts, acids & bases, may have either ionic or covalent bonds
single ring bases (nitrogenous base)
carbon skeleton
The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule. Many of teh carbons are bonded to hydrogen atoms. Also attached to the carbon skeleton are distinctive functional groups.
What determines the unizue properties of teh different types of organic compunds
formed and split by specific reactions in to 4 bacsic groups of organic compunds
(carbon skeleton/functional groups attached)
Polymer, dipeptide
when two amino acids combine
Distinguish between acids, bases and salts
Acids dissociate to form hydrogen ions (h+) and anions, proton donors
Bases dissociate to from hydroxide itons (OH-) and cations, proton acceptors
Salts dissociate into cation and anions,m neith is H+ or OH- (electrolytes)
because they are hydrophobic, only the smallest lipids (some fatty acids) can dissolve in watery blood plasma. To become more suluble in blood plasma, other lipid molecules form complexes with hydrophilic protein molecules
molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures
a segment of a DNA molecule; determine the traits we inherit, and by controlling portien systehsis they regulate most of the activities that take place in body cells througout a lifetime
Simple Sugars
monosaccharides and disaccharides are known as simple sugars
Peptide bond
the covalent bond joining each pair of amino acids during synthesis of a protein - always forms between the carbon of the carbosyl group of one amino acid and the nitrogen of the amino group
the suspended material may mix with the liquid or suspending medium for some time, but eventually it will settle out (blood)
Organic molecules
Organic compounds always contain carbon, ususally contain hydrogen, and always have acovalent bonds (2 inorganic carbons - carbon ioxide & bicarbonate ion)
total number of molecules in a given volume of solution.. Molarity = moles per liter (mol/L)
adding another amino acidd to a dipeptide
enzyme-subsrate complex
the substartes make contact with the active site on the surface of the enzyme molecules, formin a temporary intermediate compound
solutes that contain polar covalent bonds (water/lvoing), which means they dissolve easily in water - sugar/salt
distinguis between staurated and unsaturated fats, what are hydrogenated fats
saturate - saturated w/hydrogen, all bonds full; unsaturated - not saturated with hydrogen, no not pack as tight; hydrogenate - hydrogen added (peanut butter)
What is pH
measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution; the pH of body fluids must remain fairly constant for the body to maintain homeostasis
3 subgroups of carbs
monosaccharies (simple sugars, main energy source in body), disaccharides (polymer of 2 simple sugars, sucrose, glucose & furctose), polysaccharides (large, insoluble in water, not weet, energy storage)
6 properties of water
water in chemical reactions
high heat capacity
high heat of vaporization & fusion
the sugar in the RNA nucleotide is the pentose ribose
water serves as the medium for most chemical reactions in the body, and it also participates ias a reactant or product in certain reactions - reactions by the addition of water molecules. Hydorlysis reactions enable dietary nutrients to be absorbed into the body
examples of mono and polyunsaturated fats, how differ
mono - 1 double caovalen tbond in fatty acid tail, liquid at room temp, olive and peanut oil; poly - more than 1 double bond in tails, liquids, corn cottonseed and soybean oil
2 properties of carbon that make it usefuld to living organism
it can form bonds with one to thousands of other carbon atoms to proudce large molecules that can have many different shapes (the body can build many different organic compunds); the large size of most carbon containing molecules and the fact that some do not dissolve easity in watermake them useful materials for building body structures
what is responsible for the unique properties of each amino acid
R group - distinctive side chain
a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions (H+) and one or more anions - proton donor
double ring bases (nitrogenous bases)
protein structure - quaternary structure
arrangement of multiple peptide chains
in the body,m the commonly encountered steroids, such as cholesterol, estrogens, testosterone, cortison, bile salts, and vitamin D, are further classified as sterols because they also have at least one hydroxly (alcohol) group - the polar hydroxy gruops make sterols weakly amphipathic
what is the basic subunit of carbs?
tails - nonpolar
tertiary structure
3 dimensional shape of the side chain, determines function of protein
describe the basic structure of an organic compund
organic compunds are held together mostly or entirely by covalen bonds, hydrocarbon skeleton as backbone, functional groups attached tothis
4 levels of structure found in porteins, which is important to the functioning of a protein
primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary; tertiary determindes function
the monomers of nucleic acids
cohesion of water
most important property of water is its polarity - this porperty alone makes water an excellent solvent for other ionic or polars substances, gives water molecules cohesion, and allows water to minimize termperature changes
molecules that have both polar and nonplar parts, amphipathic phospholipies line up tails to tails in a double row to mnake up much of the membran that surrounds each cell
protein structure - secondary
repeated twists and folds
how are lipids similar to carbs, how do they differ?
like: contain carbon, hydrogen and osygen; unlike: fewer covalent bonds
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
one of two nucleic acids; forms the inherited genetic material inside each cell
list several examples of carbohydrates, what are major functions of carbs?
sugars, alcohols, starch; energy sources, energy transport, energy storage, structural components
protein structure - tertiary
3 dimensional shape of the chain, folding pattern
dissociates into one or more hydroxide ions (OH-) and one or more cations - proton acceptor
describe the transfer of energy visa the ATP/ADP cycle
when the 3rd phosphate group is hydrolyzed by the addition of a water molecule, the overall reaction liberates energy, used by the cell to poer its activities (ATPase), removal of the 3rd phosphate group leaves a molecule called ADP
function of ATP, what cellular activities depend on the activitiy of this compund
energy currency of cell, stroes transfers releases energy, cellular respiration
break down triglycerides
high heat capacity of water
water can absorb or release a relatively large amount of heat wiht lonly a modest change in its own termperature
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
one of two nucleid acids; relays instructions from the genes to guid each cell's synthesis of proteins from amino acids
remove hydrogen
water - high heat of vaporization
requeires a large amount of heat to change froma lizuid to a gas
how are polysaccharieds similar to monosaccharides and disacchardies? how do they differ?
similar - number of sugar units, all involve energy (source, ransport, storage)
variety of functions, respond & regulate
protein structure - primary
sequence of amino acids
if a protein encounters an altered emvironment, it may unravel and lose its characteristic shape - denatured proteins are no longer functional (cooked egg white)
split ATP
structure of eicosanoids, distinguish between 2 subclasses and give ex & func of each
lipids derived from 20 carbon fatty acid (arachidonic acid); porstaglandins & leukotrienes
gives the relative mass of a solute found in a given volume of solution
water in chemical reactions
serves as the medium for most chemical reactions in the body, and it also participates as a reactant or product in certain reactions (hydrolysis, dehydration synthese)
the reactant molecules on which the enzyme acts
basic structure of ATP
consists of three phosphate groups attached to an adenosine unit composed of adenine and the five carbon sugar ribose
types of bonds used to stabilize the structure of a protein
primary structure - pepetide
secondary - hydrogen
tertiary - several types
quaternary - serveral types
function of enzymes, how do they perform this function
catalyze specific reactions, do so with great efficiency and with many built-in controls
2 types of nucleic acids, function of each, how do they differ structurally
DNA & RNA, dna froms the inherited genetic material inside each cell, rna relays instructions from the genes to guid each cell's synthesis of proteins from amino acids; rna is single stranded
how an enzyme operates
speeds up a chemical reaction without being altered or consumed
why is the sructure of a protein so important oto its function
primary structure is genetically determind, any changes in a proteins amino acid sequence can have serious consequences for body cells (sickle cell disease)
3 important properties of enzymes
highly specific, very efficint, subject to cellular control
involved in allergic and inflammatory response
waht is responsible for the great diversity of proteins in the body
each variation in the number or sequence of amino acids can produce a differnt protein
phospholipid - what unizue structural property plays an important role in the cell membrane
polar & non polar regions, amphipathic phospholipids line up tails to tails in a double row to make up much of the membrane that surronds weach cell
basic structure of triglyceride
single glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules; a 3 carbon blycerol molecule forms the backbone, three fatty acids are attached by dehydration synthesis
ester linkage
the chemical bond formed where each water molecule is removed (triglyceride)
types of lipids
triglycerides (fats & oils)
others (fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins)
fats, oils, steroids; hydrophobic
large molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, largely responsible for structure of body tissue
nucleic acids
what elements aremost abundant in carbs, inwhat ratio?
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen,; hydrogen to oxygen is usally 2:1 (same as water), generally one water molecule for weach carbonatom (watered carbon)
4 groups/subgroups of organic compunds
nucleic acids
sugars,alcohols, starch; 3 subroups
adipose tissue
tissue composed of adipocytes specialiezed for triglycerid storage and present in teh fomr of soft pads, between various organs for support, portection and insualtion
an inherited disorder in which the monosaccharide galactowse builds up in the blood; galactose level increases because the enzyme that converst galactose to glucose is absent; treatment consists of eliminating miklk from the diet
induced fit
in other cases the active site changes its shape to fit shugly around the stubstare once the substrate enters the active site
remove water
add oxygen
add phosphate
one of two parts of an enzyme, a protein portion called the apoenzym
one of two parts of an enzyme - nonprotein portion, may be a metal ion or oan organic molecule called a coenzyme
in living cells, most catalysts are portein molecules called enzymes; all can be grouped according to the types of chemical readctions they catalyze; catalyze specific reactions
Alpha helix
one of two common secondary structures of a protein - clockwise spirals
Pleated sheet
one of two common secondary structures of a protein
the head, can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules
active sites
the part of the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction, thought to fit the substrate like a key fits in a lock
acids and bases react with one another to form satls. when dissolved in water, dissocaites into cation and anions, neith of which is H+ or OH-; in the body, salts are electrolytes that are important for carrying electricdal currents, especially in nerve and muscle tissues; also provide many essential chemical elements in intracellular and extracellular fluids
differs from a solution mainly because of the size of its particles - the solute particles in a colloid are large enough toscatter light, usaually look translucent or opaque, solutes do not selttle out
when inorganic acids, bases or salts dissolve in water, they dissociate; they separtate into ions and become surronded by water molecules
the amount of any substance that has a mass in grams equal to the sum of the atomic masses of all its atoms. A mole of anything hasthe same number of particles: 6.023 x 1023 - avogardo's number
the concentration of a solution may be expressed in several ways, ususally percentage or moles per liter (mol/L)
Dehydration synthesis reaction
when two smaller molecules join to forma larger molecule a water molecule is formed and removed from the reactants, during synthesis of proteins and other large molecules
3 common liquid mixtures
a combination of elements oor compounds that are physically blended together but not bound by chemical bonds.
dissolves another substance called the solute
Substance dissolved by solvent in a solution
in a solution, a substance called the solvent disosolves another substance called the solute. usually there is more solvent than solute in a solution
water as a lubricant
major par of mucus and other lubricating fluids

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