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Anatomy Physiology BIO-163 Final Questions


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170. Each Mammary gland is composed of how many lobes?
154. Which hormones stimulates the maturation of the ovarian follicles?
163. What hormone is thought to be responsible for hiding the fetus from the mother's immune system during pregnancy is?
153. Which of the glands secrete the hormones FSH & LH?
Pituitary gland
193. TRUE or FALSE
The base of the clitoris forms a crura?
157. Each testicular lobule contains one to four highly coiled, convoluted _____ each of which is approximately 70cm long when uncoiled?
Semineferous tubules
165. Most often the egg is fertilized in which of the following female reproductive structures?
Fallopian tubes
59. Bony projections coming off bone which allow for the attachment of tendons and ligaments are called?
184. What is the name of the finger-like structures seen at the ovarian end of the fallopina tubes?
161. Prior to ejaculation, there is movement of sperm from the testes and secretions from the prostate glands termed?
192. Which consists of rounded folds composed primarily of adipose? Its function is to protect the external female genitalia?
Labia Major
156. Egg maturation (development) is termed?
189. What is the name of the erectile tissue found in the clitoris?
Corpora Cavernosa
92. What is/are the neurotransmitters for smooth muscle?
Acetycholine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine
200. Identical twins develop from what?
Same Sperm, Same Egg
61. What is contained within the medullary cavity of a long bone?
Yellow marrow or adipose tissue.
178. The primary function of the prostate is to?
Secrete alkaline fluids to help neutralize acidic ph of the vagina.
121. Which is the only neuroglial cell found in the peripheral nervous system?
Schwann Cells
185. Which of the structures secretes fructose into siminal fluid?
Siminal Vesicles
80. The largest tarsal bone is known as?
197. Which is produced prior to the production of milk?
79. Cancellous bone is located in the _____ of the long bones?
177. The penis contains 3 columns of erectile tissue known as?
Two dorsal - corpora cavernosa
Two ventral - corpus spongiosum
107. Type- O blood has antibodies to?
A & B blood
188. What becomes of the polar bodies seen in oogenesis?
87. In the presence of Calcium ions, myosin forms crossbridges with ______.
Actin protein molecules
187. Which of the structures consists of a convoluted tubule about 18 feet long and is located on the outside of the testes?
Bowman's Capsule (Epididymis)
58. Spongy bone is also known as?
Cancellous bone
199. The innermost layer of the uterus is known as the?
94. Red blood cells are also known as?
176. What is the primary male sexual characteristic?
Presence of testies
91. Instead of troponin, smooth muscle has which protein?
167. During spermatogenesis which help to mature & nurture the developing sperm cells before they are released into the epididymis?
Supporting cells
122. Which neuroglial cells are most numerous?
174. Cells Leydig do what?
Produces testosterone
151. What hormone maintains the corpus luteum during the first two months of pregnancy?
179. Sperm cells are able to fertilize the egg after they enter the female reproductive tract, this is referred to as?
97. What are Granulocytes?
Neutrofils, basiofils, eosinophils
169. During fetal circulation blood is shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium through which of the following?
Foraman ovale
77. Free moveable joints are known as?
175. The corpora cavernosa devides laterally and attaches firmly to the peritoneum. This region of the penis is called?
Root of Penis
145. The posterior cavity of the eyeball is filled with a jelly-like substance called?
Vitrus humor
162. Parturition is better known as?
Giving birth or the birth process.
84. The "dark" colored bands seen in the striations of skeletal muscle are known as?
195. Development of the breasts during pregnancy is aided by which of the following hormones?
72. The foramen magnum enters which bone?
Occipital bone
190. Which region (s) of the spinal cord is involved in female orgasm?
Lumbar and sacrum
115. The largest lymphatic vessel in the body is called?
Thorasic duct
173. LH (lutinizing hormone is known as ________ in the male?
57. The shaft portion of a long bone is referred to as?
183. The umbilical cord contains?
Two arteries and one vein.
86. The muscle cell cytoplasm is known as the?
166. When the sperm cell reaches and contacts the egg cell for fertilization what is true?
Sperm invades and fertalizes.
143. The colored portion of the eye is the?
168. What carries oxygenated blood and nutrients to the fetus?
Umbilical vein
83. Individual muscles are separated from adjacent muscles and held into position by?
198. The embryonic disc gives rise to all BUT which germ layers?
Mosederm Layer
132. When the nerve cell membrane undergoes a sudden change in permeability and sodium ions rush inside causing the outside to be + charged its called?
180. The male and female sex cells contribute how many chromosomes each?
90. The head of the femur attaches to what portion of the hipbone?
172. During erection of penile tissue smooth muscles in the arteries relax allowing increased blood flow in response to innervation and stimulation of which?
112. T-4 released from the thyroid gland is also known as?
186. Which of the structures provides most of the lubricating fluid to aid insertion of the male penis?
Bartholin's gland
70. Bones of the wrist are termed?
Short bones (corpals)
182. Which stimulates the mammary gland to actually secrete or expel the milk from the breast?
Placental progesterone (prolactin)
88. What is the function of the tropomyosin-troponin protein complex?
Prevents actin from binding to myosin crossbridges.
181. The nipple of the breast is surrounded by?
Pigmented area called the areola.
137. Where is the vestibule located?
Between the cochlea and the semicurcular canals.
191. Which of the cells produces inhibin hormone?
Supporting Cells (sertois cell)
65. Which bone is located in the neck and helps aid in the movement of the tongue and aid in swallowing?
171. Which stimulates the growth of mammary glands at puberty?
Ovarian hormones
74. The cristi galli is part of which bone?
Ethmoid bone
164. Development of secondary sex characteristics occurs at what stage of development?
Germ puberty
63. The knee cap is called the?
196. TRUE or FALSE
Involution is aided by the nursing infant?
116. What type blood is known as the univesal donor?
35. What is the function of the protein Keratin?
Waterproofs the tissue and prevents microrganisms from entering the body as well as other toxins. It also prevents leaking of body fluids.
82. Which bone contains the odontoid process (Dens)?
30. Blood vessels and nerves are found in which area of the bone?
Haversain canals
117. The outermost portion of the Schwann cell as it wraps around an axon is termed?
36. What is the function of the fibroblast?
Produces both yellow and white fibers.
73. The mastoid process is part of which bone?
Temporal bone
23. Which types of tissue consists of a single layer of thin, flattened, irregular cells that fit tightly together?
Simple squamous
110. What is the function of ADH?
decreases urinary output, regulates blood pressure
24. Which tissues form the inner linings of the urinary bladder and the passageways of the urinary system?
Transitional epithelium
119. Between the adjacent schwann cells are gaps or spaces where they do not touch which is called?
Nodes of Ranvier
37. Bone cells are found in chambers known as?
131. The insula is also known as?
Island of Reil
53. What is the function of RNA?
It carries amino acid to messenger RNA.
101. Which cells produce antibodies?
51. Simple cubodial epithelium is found in which area?
Lining of the ovaries, kidneys, salivary glands, pancreas, and liver.
142. Which portions of the brain is involved in interpreting impulses involved in the sense of dynamic equilibrium?
52. Where is smooth muscle found?
Digestive system and other glands.
127. What neurotransmitter is secreted by the preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system?
38. The function of the canaliculi is to?
Allow for a rich nutrient supply to all bone tissue.
159. The fibromuscular cord that aids movement of the testes during fetal descention is known as?
49. What is the function of the dendrites?
Carry impulses to the neuron cell body.
138. The receptors of taste and smell are examples of?
50. The fallopian tubes would contain which type of epithelium?
Precilliated prestratified columnar epithelium.
76. Which part of the brain lies within the sella turcia?
Pituitary Gland
39. Dehydrocholesterol is converted into vitamin D by?
UV light
56. What does DNA code for anyway?
48. The neuron cell body is known as the?
Soma or parikeum
135. A convolution seen on the surface of the brain is known as?
Grooves or folds
15. Sometimes atoms of the same element have different atomic weights. This is referred to as?
75. The cheek bones are called?
Zygomatic bones
21. If you have the following DNA what is its complimentary sequence of mRNA?
114. Which antibodies are bound directly to the mast cell?
44. The region/area of the epidermis where active cellular division is occurring is known as the?
Stratum Germinativum
68. Which is the largest bone of the lower leg?
42. What type of muscle tissue contain intercalated discs?
Cardiac muscle
69. Transverse foramina are only found in which vertebrae?
Cervical Vertebrae
14. Carbon has an atomic weight of 12. In addition it has 6 protons. With this in mind, what is true?
6 protons, and 6 electrons.
98. What are tissue phagocytes?
7. Which element makes up most of the human body?
H2O which is water
140. Which structures contains the visual receptor cells?
1. The neucleus of an atom is composed of?
Protons & Neutrons
60. The medullary cavity is lined with a membrane called the?
25. The outermost layer of the skin is composed of?
Stratified squamous
104. Which antibody is second one made after the immune system makes an immune response?
What is the function of the Mitochondria?
releases energy from glucose molecules to form ATP
109. Both FSH & LH are hormones which act on which glands?
SEX organs
9. The atomic number is the same number of ______ contained within the atom?
134. The centers for controlling vomiting, sneezing, coughing and swallowing are found in which part of the brain?
27. Stratified squamous epithelium is found?
In the anal canal, vagina, throat, and outer skin.
129. Which neuroglial cells phagocytize foreign material such as bacteria in the nervous system?
2. Carbon forms how many bonds?
4 bonds
99. Which white blood cells are increased in allergic reactions, or in asthma that is caused from allergies?
29. What type of muscle is involuntary and contains striations?
141. Which structure contains the sensory hairs involved in dynamic equilibrium?
40. What types of cartilage is found in the larynx?
Elastic Cartilage

Paired-Arytonoid, cuneiform, corniculate
Unpaired-Thyroid, Cricoid, Epiglottis
85. The segment of a myofibril that extends from Z-line to Z-line is called?
34. Which accessory cell is usually associated with columnar cells?
Goblet Cells
62. Most bones develop from endochondrial bone. This involves the replacement of which type of cartilage?
10. The element nitrogen can form how many bonds?
3 bonds
56. Which is not found in ribosonal RNA?
3. Lysosomes are most numerous in what cells?
Phagocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages
95. The primary (not the only) function of hemoglobin is to?
Transport oxygen molecules to the tissue.
41. What types of cartilage makes up the discs found between vertebrae?
Intervertebral discs made of fibrocartilage.
136. As a person moves from a higher altitude to a lower one, what is true about the tympanic membrane?
It if forces inward toward the middle ear.
26. What best describes ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
Found in the lining of the sinuses, single layer of cells with the neucli of each cell appearing at a different level.
133. Cerebrospinal fluid is found in which of the areas/structures?
In the spinal cord, emptied into capillaries in the subarachnoid space.
20. RNA contains all but which of the nucleotides?
139. The circular opening in the center of the Iris is called?
8. _______are extremely small subatomic particles and have almost no weight and carry a negative electrical charge?
111. Which hormones will be released from the pituitary gland when the hypothalamus secretes GnRH?
FSH & LH (Prolactin)
12. What is the function of visceral and parietal serous membranes?
Allows for frictionless movement.
120. Efferent neurons are called?
Motor Neurons
11. What is contained within the mediastinum?
trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, thyroid gland and the parathyroid gland.
105. Which is responsible for clotting of blood that comes in contact with a foreign substance?
Hagmans factor
22. How many naturally occurring elements are known to exist in our universe?
123. For a short period following a nerve impulse the threshold stimulus will not trigger an impulse unless the stimulus is strong this is?
Relative refractory period
5. Mitosis occurs in?
neuclous and when the cytoplasm devides
155. After fertilization, the zygote after a few days of development will become a hollow ball of cells known as?
45. Which sensory receptors respond to light touch?
Mesner's corpuscles
89. What is the neurotransmitter found at the motor-end plate of Skeletal muscle?
16. What is the following is not true concerning enzymes?
They are usually waste products of cellular metabolism.
125. Where are neurotransmitters normally stored?
At the end of axons in vescules.
32. Which antibody is found attached to the surface of certain lympocytes?
78. Red bone marrow is closely associated with what type of bone?
Spongy bone
46. Which regions of the brain is most responsible for the maintenance of normal body temp?
158. A ______ is a convoluted sac-like structure about 5cm long that is attached to the vas deferens near the base of the urinary bladder.
Seminol Vesicule
28. Glands that secrete their products into blood are known as?
100. Monocytes are the largest of the blood cells. What are they?
Immature macrophages
18. What is a waste product of cellular respiration?
Carbon dioxide
130. Lobes of the cerebrum include?
Frontal, pridal, temporal, occipital
19. Oxygen plays a part in the Kreb's cycle at the very last step what does it do?
it is the final electron acceptor and hydrogen proton acceptor forming water.
93. When a muscle cell is repolarizing, what is occuring?
17. What is the molecule/chemical that actually enters the mitochondria and begins the Kreb's cycle?
Pyruvic acid
146. Which of the photoreceptors is sensitive to light and dark?
47. Where would simple squamous be found?
Avili of the lungs and endothelial of capillaries.
71. The radial notch is found on which bone?
54. Where is tRNA normally found?
In the Cytoplasim.
81. The sternum is made up of three bones, the very bottom one is called the?
Xiphoid process
32. What are the four major types of tissue?
Epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle.
160. The fluid conveyed by the urethra to the outside during ejaculation is called?
13. What lines the chest wall?
Pariteal pleura
66. Which bone is the collar bone?
43. Which of the proteins is responsible for waterproofing the skin?
96. Red blood cells live about how long?
120 days
64. How many pairs of ribs are there?
126. Whic statement is true concerning the autonomic nervous system?
Involuntary, part of the PNS, has sympathetic and parasympothetic branches.
67. The first cervical vertebrae is known as the?
108. ACTH exerts its action on which gland?
Adrenal cortex
103. Which are the main circulating plasma proteins?
Albumins, Glogulin, fibrogen
144. Which portion of the retina produces the sharpest vision?
Fovea centralis
124. TRUE or FALSE? Saltatory nerve impulse conduction is seen in the peripheral nervous system?
102. Which white blood cells are the Commanding General and pretty much controls actions of other white blood cells?
T-Helper cells
147. A developing human organism is first considered an embryo at what age of development?
8 weeks
148. What is the primary cause of menopause?
Results from aging of ovaries.
113. If you take your child to the Dr and he has a runny nose, itchy eyes, and a low-grade fever what does he have?
149. The average human pregnancy is how many weeks?
40 weeks
150. During prenatal care, the expecting mother's blood is tested for what hormone to determine pregnancy?
118. Myelinated nerve tissue appears?
106. Which of the protein splitting enzymes that digests fibrin threads and other proteins associated with a blood clot?
152. What are the external accessory organs of a female?
Libia major & minor, clitoris
128. Which forms the deep bridge of nerve fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres?
Corpus Collisum
1. The neucleus of an atom is composed of?
a. Protons and Neutrons

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