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Food Science 2


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Straight dough method
1. Scald milk
2. soften shortening
3. add short.+sugar+salt dispersed in liquid
4. add flour gradually
5. knead after short rest (to allow hydr. of gluten+starch) to develop gluten
Temps required to reach the three levels of doneness
140 F -- rare

160 F -- medium

170 F -- well done
What maturing agents do
Alters phys behavior of PRO
Modifies SH --crosslinking-->disulfide links
Alters ability of PRO to stretch
aged flours-->less extensibility
improves adhesive qlty needed in baking prod.
organelle which is a fiber (thick and thin filament)
Ca++ effect in dough
firms gluten
carotenoid in salmon & cooked crustacean
Antimicrobial properties of ovomucin
To cook soy beans in pod
boil 5-10 minutes then shell
1 pound pods = 1.75 Cups beans
+ heat
+ base = ?
loses phytyl
loses methyl groups
bright green CHLOROPHYLLIN
--Makes it easier to hydrate dry milk
--Increases hygroscopic nature
Rich cakes are susceptible to ____ if have not been tx w/Cl and low pH d/t ____ ____

weak PRO's
How does fish translucence change with heating?
Increase in opacity
Which starch is implicated in the staling of bread and why?
Branches H-bond
When it's absent from bread=no staling

decreased by B-amylase 6X faster at 8C than at 30C (?)
Myoglobin in meat
Purplish red
When meat is fresh and protected from contact w/air
Why does homogenized milk need to be pasteurized?
To prevent lipase from reacting
Deesterify protopectin and pectin
reduces gel ability
results in ripening
removes methoxy groups
softens fruit
a.k.a. pectinmethoxylases, pectases, etc.
AT what temperature does collagen shrink?
50-60 C
meat spots in egg d/t:
sloughed tissue
capillary break in ovary EARLY in dev. of yolk
Drip loss
Combo of juices and fat that drip from meat during cooking
What is the difference between bromelin and papain or ficin in meat tenderizing effects?
Bromelin is more specific for connective tissue

Papain + ficin is more specific for muscle fibers
Role of butter in crystal. candy
interfering agent, affects viscosity
denatured globin hemichrome
d/t heat triggered oxidation of ferrous-->ferric
denatured globin
Oxygen replaced w/water complexed with Fe
FIVE factors in emulsion stability
1. viscosity of cont. phase
2. emulsifying agent (present? and amount)
3. droplet size of disp phase
4. ratio of disp:cont.
5. Brownian movement
At what temp does muscle fiber shrink?
60-70 C
first in width (till 62C)
second in length (55-80C)
Effect of Ca ions on pectin gels
forms salt bridges w/LMP strands
What is the purpose of liquid in flour dough?
to hydrate gluten
essential for gluten dev.
inside muscle cell
Objective measures of Baking Quality
1. standardized micro-loaves (10-100g flour)
2. # water/wt. flour will absorb proport. to PRO content
3. # flour/cup water will absorb
4. farinograph
5. mixograph
6. extensiograph
7. fermentograph
8. hard vs. soft wheat (PRO)
Why milk must be shielded from UV light
UV light causes off flavor d/t oxidation
membrane surrounding fiber

Advantages of TVP in food production
--Excellent source of protein for vegetarians
--cheaper than meat
--increases juiciness of meats when added
--increases binding capability
Ring formation of frozen bread d/t?
H2O leaves starch as it sublimates (??)
Production of Fibrotein
Soy fiber spun from isolate
held together w/binder containing flavoring
resembles pieces of sliced meat
usually canned or frozen
Effects of whey proteins on flour component of dough
-slack, sticky dough
-red. vol.
-but almost NO effect if tx/w/heat
-d/t RXN btwn B-lactoglobulin and K-casein
sheath of connective tissue surrounding sarcolemma
As temperature increases ______ accelerates and ______ increases
(w/regard to bread dough)
rate of hydration

rate of gluten development
one repeating unit bound by z-lines
Changes in viscosity as dough is heated
brownish-red d/t
--oxidation of ferrous to ferric & complexing with water

process cheese
Heat kills microbes
emulsifier added (Na2HPhosphate, NaCitrate)to control separation of fat during cooking
More soluble
High water-bind cty
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
membranous system of tubules and cisternae (flattened Ca reservoirs) that play a role in muscle movement
Cold pressing
mech. pressing to express oil
results in high quality
Nitrates and nitrites create what color?
And with increased exposure to light and air what color?
+ light&air--> brownish
+more light&air--> discolored
Causes of tough dry crumb
too much flour
too much egg
too much mixing
low fat
low sugar
Primary bundles
bundles of 20-40 muscle fibers surrounded by a membrane
Bleaching of lipids
often done w/charcoal
removes colors AND flavors
soy products from isolates
-Extrusion of cooked soy flour and spinning fibers
-dissolved isolate forced thru spinnerette and coagulated as fibers
-fibers made into meat alternatives.
Effect of low pH on pectin gels
forms LEAST charge on pectin strands
allows them to H-bond 2gether
Factors affecting grade of meat
maturity of animal
fat content and distribution
color of meat
Degumming and Neutralization
removes gums (duh)
and FFA's
Secondary bundles
a grouping of primary bundles
Hot pressing
Using steam or hot H2O to heat plant seeds
gets MORE oil out
Also gums, FFAs, off flavors
Soy bean processing
Beans hulled
Oil extracted
Soy flour remains
Acids or alkali adding steps to yield desired product
3 possible reasons for Double Yolking
1.genetic char. of double ovulation
2.failure of yolk to enter infundibulum until 25 hours later when next ovulation, fuses with second yolk in infund.
3. abdominal tumor
soy grits
from grinding defatted soy flakes to coarse particle size
incorporated into commercial food products
to alter texture of groun meats, cereals, etc.
Sponge Dough method
1. combine yeast+liq+some flour
2. add part of sugar to stimulate yeast
3. when sponge well fermented, add salt+fat
4. add rest of flour
5. cont. like straight dough method
soy flour
defatted variety contains 47-53% PRO
From grinding defatted flakes till powder formed
Cooking Losses
Total losses from meat by evaporation and dripping during cooking
Poultry turns what color with excessive heat?
Reddish-pink d/t:
Hgb + CO2 + Nitrix oxide
Cake flour
soft wheat
extra short/fancy/or short patent
7.5% PRO
sheath of connective tissue surrounding a number of groups of secondary bundles
Role of cream of tartar in crystalline candy
Acid hydrolysis
sheath of connective tissue surrounding primary & secondary bundles
Betalains + heat
Dull color
To cook dry soy beans
hydrate overnight
replace w/fresh water, cook
soaked beans can be frozen for 6 months
Main fats in milk
(in fat globules)
oleic > palmitic > linoleic
Carotenoids + heat
turns drab color
Chlorophyll + acid
turns olive
Disadvantages of using TVP in food production
Flavor and texture are "negatively" effected when used >20%
+ chlorophyllase = ?
loses phytyl group
bright green
Postmortem changes in meat tissue
1. Loss of Oxygen from blood d/t end of circulation
2. Anaerobic rxns begin
3. ADP --> ATP til CP runs out
4. ATP prod. stops with increase in LA
5. more acidity
6. Muscles lose extensibility d/t blocked unlocking of actin-myosin links d/t lack of ATP
7. Contractions & rigidity d/t Ca accumulation
warm lipids slowly cooled w/agitation
allows large crystals w/low melt pt. to form
large crystals filtered/centrifuged out
remaining fat can be stored in fridge as liquid oil
good for salad dress., mayo, etc.
--Cherry red d/t addition of 2-O2
--O2 can permeate plastic wrap
--Maintains: Sodium pyrophosphate, sodium erythorbate, citric acid

Chlorophyll + blanch
retains bright green
To cook shelled soy beans
2 volumes of shelled beans per volume of boiling water
--simmer for 10-20 min
Role of chocolate in crystal. candy
Increases viscosity of syrups so less sucrose needs to crystalize to give candy desired consistency
Interf agent
Role of corn syrup in crystal. candy
retards crystallization
Role of brown sugar in crystal. candy
interf agent (molasses)
Base catalyzed
Forms conjugated system
forms maltol, isomaltol, other furanes--velvety flavor
increased sweetnes
Which wheat pro is sol in H2O
Anthocy-- + metal
green or slate blue
Solvent Extraction
done on oil seeds to isolate additional lipids
Medium patent flour
using 90% of flour stream
More PRO than cake
Less starch than cake
Effects of salt on dough
inhibits proteases
firming effect on gluten
less water holding cty of dough
limit salt to 2% of wt. of flour
Anthocy-- + base
dough softners do what?
increase shelf life
d/t retard staling
dextrins soften bread
Anthocy-- + neutral
Carotenoids + oxid
loss of color
Betalains + base
Anthocya-- + acid
Soft wheat should be manipulated LESS?/MORE? than hard wheat
Anthocy-- + metal + ascorbic acid
oxidation = green/slate blue
But fat can also have this effect on gluten dev.
it can lubricate gluten and increase the tendency of strands to stick to each other
Anthocy-- + enzymes
loss of color
Betalains (of beets, ex)
plus acid
+ heat
+ acid = ?
Loss of Mg
Flavones + base
Triticale flour
(characteristics, pro content, special AA, replacement)
Cross btwn wheat+rye
Similar to parent grains
10.7-16% PRO
More lysine than wheat
High yield per acre
Limit mixing and ferment. time
40-50% as replacement
Extraction of lipids
removal of lipids from their nat. sources
Rye flour
most closely approaches wheat gluten, but cannot perform the same
has gluten and gliadin, but can NOT be manipulated into gluten complex with enough elasticity
12.1% PRO
20-40% replacement
Water in leavening
ONE vol water expands to 1600 as steam

in popovers and cream puffs, water:flour ratio is high enuf to provide free water to vaporize
Anthoxanthins + base
C. perfringens
Anaerobic, spore-forming
--animal intest., meat, soil
Deep dish, warm (45-60C), slow cooling
Control: serve promptly, hold less than ONE hour, keep hot
refridge, quick cool down
8 Objective measures of flour quality
1-proximal analysis
4-flour particle size
5-hydration capacity
7-falling # test
9-fractionation of flour
lactic+acetic acid bact.
24 Hr. ferm.
some artificially made with lactic acid + flavors
starter has absolute requirement for maltose
curing w/nitrites or nitrates
for long term storage
prevents botulism
leads to pinkish-red color w/light and air-->brownish
Remove heat d/t crystallization
maintain select temp to promote formation of stable desirable crystals
can be stored w/greater var. in temp
used to prevent "bloom" in choc.
Flavones + acid
d/t reaching abnormally low pH during rigor mortis
light colored, mushy, high drip loss w/cooking
PRO: safer pesticides (cuz none), more nutri., greater yields

CON: pollen spread, superweed, resistance
Causes of fallen center
-excess sugar
-excess fat
-excess BP
-inadequate mixing
-low temp during baking
-opening oven door too early
flavones + metal
yellow cooking water
What sugar does to gluten development
retards it
Corn flour
Unable to form useful PRO complex
7-8% protein content
ID ingred. and process. areas that r sensitive + must be monitored to ensure safe prod.
R group in chlorophyll b
Enzyme-Enzyme conversion to High fructose corn syrup
1. corn starch is gelatinized so starch polymers are more accessible to enzymes
2. tx w/a-amylase (or other)
3. tx w/D-glucose isomerase
which turns glucose-->fructose
(isomerase normally attached to a support like glass beads)
Microbes causing foodborne INFECTION
C. perfrigens
measures resistance of stirring rods moving thru batter or dough & records the results graphically
microbes causing foodborne INTOXication
S. aureus
C. bot
When mold is the cause of foodborne illness
A. flavus-->aflatoxin-->aflatoxicosis
--peanuts, cereal in damp, warm storage
---visibly rotten
Control: cool storage, sort and remove moldy portion
Short patent flour
high starch, low PRO
b/c primarily very fine particle streams from center of endosperm
which wheat pro is sol in dilute acid
poultry and rigor mortis
somewhat slower in chicken
do NOT cook/freeze until AFTER it's over or flesh will be tough
Which wheat pro is soluble in salt soln?
Rendering of lipids
removal of fat from animal tissues
either dry or moist heat
wet done on fats for human consumption
--hot fluid separated from H2O, antiox. added
International Org. of Standards
--dev n' manufact
--commodity supply
--qlty mgmt n' system element
removal of gums,
ketones, and aldehydes
Fat retards gluten dev. by:
coating gluten surface + preventing hydration
% sugar allowed in dough
2-8% wt flour
tenderizing effect
Danger Zone
Rice Flour
NO elasticity nor cohesivenes
Defies hydration
6.5-7% Protein
5-30% as replacement
What are some carcass handling and processing procedures that effect tenderness of meat?
Hanging during rigor--more tender
16C for first 16-24 is best
Electrical stimulation--tender
mechanical stimulation--beating it tender
Meat tenderizing enzymes
Fed Reg of food supply
US Dept o commerce
-nat. marine fisheries serv
-fda seafood hotline
-safe food supply, labeling, food additives, inspect., educ.
-Food Safety Inspect. Service
-meat, poultry, eggs
fat% in dough
1/2 to 1.5% wt flour
increases vol.
Anthoxanthins + acid
Too DARK crust d/t:
too much BS
too high/low in oven
too much sugar
Salt rising bread
shorter than sourdough
otherwise similar starter
region in myofibril where thin actins adjoin
creates dark line that defines end of a sarcomere
How aging effects tenderness
Holding of meat as it passes thru rigor mortis and sometimes for days-2 weeks
Theory: cathepsins and Ca-activating factor (proteolytic enzymes)on muscle proteins to produce simpler proteins and break actin-myosin links
Granular cereal--How it's made
Dough made
Dough rises
Dough baked, sliced, toasted, crumbed :)

3 Purposes of irradiation in improving shelf life
alternative to fumigation to control insect in foods
inhibit sprouting or other self generating mech. of deterioration
destroy veg. cells of pathogens
Nutrient(s) not normally found in food added for particular diet. purpose
Iodized salt (ex)
+ heat
+ acid = ?
loses Mg
olive green PHEOPHYTIN
Role of salt in quick breads
decreases hydr. of PRO
-High speed grinding breaks apart endosperm into starch & PRO particles
--separated by density and size in stream of turbulent air into high PRO fractions and high starch fractions
--allows custom blends of flours for specialty products, cakes, flours
salt and yeast
makes firm
slows yeast down
higher penetration, low efficiency
Air in leavening
AIR in every leavening process
if fat used has small crystals, then more air trapped
Humped baked product d/t:
1-too much flour
2-too much mixing
3-too deep pan
4-too hot oven
5-low sugar
6-low fat
7-low liquid
What happens when there are too many SH and too few disulfide links?
sticky, INelastic dough
Baking Soda
2NAHCO3 --> Na2CO3 + CO2
What is the effect of defatting on bread making qlty of flour?
decreased volume
Future of irrad.
--expensive facility
--public accept. of irrad prod.
irrad vs. sanitation standards
--med instruments
gluten complex char.
2/3 H2O
75-85% PRO
5-10% lipid
5-15% starch
Nutrients added to meet spec. legal standards of min/max level
Wheat flour enrich w/thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, etc
Yeast organism and roles
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
flavor addition
dough developer
- phytyl group = ?
R group in chlorophyll a
is a
Milk clarification
High speed centrifuge
removes sediment, body cells from udder, and bacteria
proanthocy-- + oxidation
pinkish (cut pears/potatoes)
brown (other cut things or after long exposure)
Fish and rigor mortis
extended if fish are iced ASAP after killing
Maintained in chilled storage
Benzoyl peroxide
bleaching agent
Puffed Cereal
-temper grain
-heat grain
-cook under pressure to about 288C
-suddenly release pressure
Role of eggs in quick breads
coag. yielding texture + struct
esp. if gluten is weak
surfactant, emulsifier
effect of low Aw on pectin gels
pectin strands can H-bond
Act as plasticizer to keep gel NON-brittle
Baking Pwdr
BS + acidulent + bulk/dry agent
Cream of tartar
Single vs. double acting
rate of gas release
SAS-P- double acting
Defend the oxidation of white flour
you tell me ????? :)
Baker's Ammonia
NH4HCO3-->NH3 + H2O + CO2
Role of liquid in quick breads
Dispersing medium
Forms steam
Gluten flour
vital wheat gluten added for ~ 41% PRO
tougher, chewier bread
What happens to lipids during flour maturation (very GENERAL answer)
undergo beneficial changes
SAS-P double acting
Accel. dev. of rancidity in dry flour mixes containing fat
bitter residue
Role of fat in quick breads
more flakiness
less staling
shortening power proport. to spreadability
Instantized flour
Agglomerate, absorb moisture slowly
Gluten does NOT dev readily
Protein content of Oat flour
and how much of it you can use to replace reg. flour
17% PRO
up to 30% as replacement
Region in the center of sarcomere where only thick myofilaments of myosin occur
3 Basic Goals in making gelatin
1. remove non-collagenous stuff from stock

2. Turn pure collagen into gelatin

3. recover gelatin in dried form
Role of sugar in quick breads
in HIGH amount, it competes with gluten for H2O
Why SAS-P Baking Powder is NOT used in commercial flour mixes:
You tell me ????
Alkaline Tx to make gelatin
FOUR steps
1. soak in Ca-oxide soln 3-10min
2. wash out lime
3. adjust pH to 5.8
4. Hot water extractions
the light region on either side of the Z-line in a sarcomere
Consists of NONoverlapping, thin, myofilament actin
Cold shortening
severe contraction of muscle in carcasses that have been chilled too quickly and severely after slaugher
examples of maturing agents
DE (not dextrose equiv)
Degree of Esterification
# esterified D-galacuronic acid residues/ total # of D-""
First break
corrugated rolls break wheat into coarse particles-->middlings
Cheese making (kinda out of order steps)
Rennin converts K-casein to para-K-casein
para-K-casein unites w/Ca to make curd
curd cut to release whey
moisture down from 87-->37%
Radiation in vacuum/inert
decrease in -HO2 & H202
Acid-Enzyme method to make corn syrup
Same as Acid hydrolysis,
but followed by enzyme tx to make high MALTOSE, etc
Gluten complex of ___ wheat develops more ____
Radiation in frozen
decrease in free radicals
2 Factors for good cake flour
Gaseous Cl (for mature)
low pH
Drying eggs
Sugars must be removed to prevent Maillard Rxn
Yolk sugar removed with yeast
Egg white sugar removed AFTER pasteur. by microbial ferm.
Pasteur. liquid adjusted to pH 7-7.5 w/citric or lactic acid
addition of H2O4 releases O2 and speeds of process (?)
Ionizing radiation-->____--->____--->_____
collisions-->break chem bonds--->free radicals
solid in liquid
Shredded cereal
-made from cooked, dried, tempered whole grain
-passed thru grooved rollers
-buscuits made by pinching ends 2gether.
low penetration-->inactivate m.o. on surface, thin layer, equipm surface
Reduction rollers
smooth rolls reduce middlings into flour
Proteins in egg white
ovalbumin --------- 54%
ovotransferrin ---- 12
ovomucoid --------- 11
ovomucin ---------- 3.5
lysozyme ---------- 3.4
avidin ------------ .05
Total portion of the sarcomere in which thick and thin overlap
Includes H-band
7 principles of HACCP
1. conduct hazards analysis
2. identify CCP
3. establish critical limits for each CCP
4. monitor reqmt's for each CCP
5. corrective action if CCP deviates
6. keep records
7. verification procedure
dough conditioners do what?
strengthen gluten structure of dough
improves gas holding
If active dry yeast is below 100F...
glutathione leaches from yeast
softening dough and
volume of loaf will be low
Naturally occuring ____ are needed for gluten development
Infra Red
at least 800nm
increase T
Effect of high sugar on pectin gel formation
lowers Aw by shearing away water envelope around pectin strands
Binding components of muscle
Sarcolemma: encases fibers
Endomysium: btwn fibers
Perimysium: surrounds bundles of fibers
Epimysium: surrounds many bundles of fibers to encase muscle
(remember: S.E.P.E.)
Ionizing radiation types
alpha: He nuclei, stopped by paper
beta: cathode, hi energy electron, stopped by Al
gamma: photons, stopped by lead
Neutrons: hi penetration, residual

Good penetrating power, non-residual
-->use gamma from Co-60
Pectic substances
(1,4)-a-D-galacturonopyranosyl unit polymer
in middle lamella of plant cells
includes galactans and arabans
differ in DE
Effects of heat on meat
water loss d/t decreased water binding capacity
myosin is less soluble
hydration of muscle protein decreases
collagen H-bonds break
gelatin components move away from each other
Milk's role in crystal. candy
interferes w/crystallization by adhering to crystal surface
Flaked/Rolled Cereal
Grain flattened by passing thru rollers after tempering

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