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Foreign substances that, when introduced into the body, stimulate the production of an antibody.
Sterile field
Microorganism-free area.
Surgical asepsis
Sterile technique; practice that keeps an object or an area completely free of microorganisms and spores.
Susceptible host
Individual who has difficulty combating microorganisms and is at risk for developing an infection.
Systemic infection
Illness caused by microorganisms that spread to and damage other body areas.
Transmission-based Precautions
Guidelines used in addition to Standard Precautions for any client with known or suspected infections that are spread by airborne or droplet transmission, or by physical contact.
Manner in which the microorganism gets to the host. Direct: Infected person has direct contact with another person through touch, droplets, kissing, or sexual intercourse. Indirect: Requires a vector or vehicle to carry the microorganism to the host. Airborne: Droplet nuclei (remains of droplets coming from an infected person) are spread to another person.
Object or animal by which organisms are transmitted (an insect, or a used drinking glass, for instance).
Microorganism's ability to produce disease.
Microorganisms made primarily of a substance called nucleic acid; they must enter living cells in order to reproduce.
Types of Microorganisms
Bacteria Viruses Fungi Parasites
Helpful Actions of Microorganisms
Resident Flora
Harmful Actions of Microorganisms
Infection : Pathogens are Infectious Agents
Controlling Communicable Diseases
CDC gets reports each month from Health care providers
Types of Infections
Local Infection Systemic Infection Bacteremia : Septicemia in the blood strem Nosocomial:staph Iatrogenic Infection diagnostic or therapeutic source
Factors in the Chain of Infection
1 Agent 2 Reservoir 3 Portal of exit 4 Method of transmission 5 Portal of entry 6 Susceptible Host
Factors that Reduce Host Resistance
Age Genetics Stress Nutrition Medication Cronic Deseases
Nonspecific Defenses
Intact skin Moist mucous membranes special cells saliva tears stomach acids vag fluid urine flow gastric acids chemical agents
Specific or Immune Defenses
Antigens, immune defenses; antibody-mediated and cellmediated defenses against identified foreign proteins such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other infectious agents
Standard Precautions
precautions used with all clients to prevent spread of microorganisms; applied to all body fluids, blood, secretions, excretions (except sweat), mucous membranes, and nonintact skin
Using Aseptic Technique
method used to prevent the transmission of microorganisms from one place or person to another
microorganism's ability to produce disease
State some risks of nosocomial infections.
infections that occur as a result of healthcare delivery in a healthcare setting
Explain the difference between nonspecific and specific defense systems of the body.
defenses that protect the body against all microorganisms immune defenses; antibody-mediated and cellmediated defenses against identified foreign proteins such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other infectious agents
Inflammatory response
local nonspecific defense reaction of tissues when they are exposed to infection or injury

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