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bloodimmune 2


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Upon exposure to a specific antigen, B lymphocytes enlarge and differentiate into lymphoblasts. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Some lymphoblasts differentiate into plasmablasts, which are plasma cell precursors. The mature plasma cells then produce gamma globulins at a rapid rate.
Hoe does heparin work with respect to other unclotting agents?
Heparin is used for the prevention of clot formation. This occurs when heparin binds to antithrombin 111, leading to a subsequent inactivation of thrombin.
Warfarin is used to inhibit the formation of vit. K clotting factors and would prevent the formation of any clot.
Aspirin is used to prevent the activation of platelets.
Vit k would be used to restore clotting factors that may be decreased after warfarin treatment.
What is polycythemia vera?
It is an increase in RBC, WBC and platelets. This will increase hematocrit and subsequently the viscosity of the blood, resulting in an increased afterload for the heart. This can cause chest pain.
What is streptokinase used for?
It is used to break down an already formed clot, which is appropriate therapy for a pulmonary embolus.
A well trained athlete will have a slightly elevated EPO level, and the hematocrit can be elevated up to a value of 50%. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. A hematocrit higher than 50% suggests EPO treatment.
What is the relationship between aplastic anemia and EPO levels?
In aplastic anemia, bone marrow production is decreased, but it does not respond to EPO. Therefore, a person with Aplastic anemia would have a low hematocrit and an elevated level of EPO.
All WBC's originate from the bone marrow, from myelocytes or lymphocytes. TRUE/FALSE
What are the three major tests used to determine coagulation defects/
1.Prothrombin time- is used to test the extrinsic pathway and is based on the time required for the formation of a clot following the addition of tissue thromboplastin.
2. Bleeding time-following a small cut is used to test for several clotting factors, but it is especially prolonged by a lack of platelets.
3.-Partial thromboplastin time(PPT)- is used to test the intrinsic pathway and is based on the addition of plasma thromboplastin to blood.
What is the result of the activation of complement?
It results in a series of actions. These include opsonization and phagocytosis by neutrophils, lysis of bacteria, agglutination of organisms, activation of basophils and mast cells and chemotaxis. fragment C5a of the complement system causes chemotaxis of neutrophils and macrophages.
Are allergic tendencies passed from parent to child?
Yes. They are characterized by large quantities of IgE antibodies in the plasma. One characteristic of IgE antibodies is the attachment to mast cells and basophils. When an allergen binds to IgE, there is a release of granules containing histamine and other factors from the mast cells.
After a person is placed in an atmosphere with low O2, how long does it take for the number of reticulocytes to increase?
3 days. Erythropoietin levels increase following a decreased arterial O2 level, with maximum EPO production occurring within 24hrs. It takes 5 days for the production of new erythrocytes, and it takes 1-2 days for a reticulocyte to become an erythrocyte.
Make any rational statement that applies to cytotoxic T cells.
Cytotoxic cells act on infected cells when the cells have the appropriate antigen located on the surface. Cytotoxic T cells are stimulated by lymphokines generated by the activation of helper T cells. Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected cells by releasing proteins that punch large holes in the membrane of the infected cells. There is no interaction between cytotoxic T cells and B cells.
neutrophils circulate 4-8 hrs in the blood and then enter the tissue, where they remain for another 4-5 days. Monocytes -macrophages remain in the tissue for months. TRUE/FALSE

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