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Flash cards due Sunday 10/2/06


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What separates the cerebral cortex into lobes (parietal, frontal, temporal, occipital?)
Deep folds in the cortex called "sulci" of "fissures". For example, the frontal lobe is separated from the parietal by the "central sulcus" and the temporal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the "sylvian fissure (or sulcus)".
Name a symptom that may be caused by a lesion of the cerebellum.
"Ataxia" (poorly coordinated, awkward movements). Intoxication is a good example.
True or False: The basal ganglia are mostly white matter.
False. The basal ganglia are mostly gray matter (nerve cell bodies rather than myelinated axons).
What are the three major structures of the basal ganglia?
caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. (In addition, the midbrain structure “substantia nigra” is sometimes included, even though it attached only by nerve "wiring". Recall that the substantial nigra is the main structure affected in Parkinsons Disease.)
The best known, traditional function of the basal ganglia is ____________ functioning.
Motor functioning is the “traditional” role. HOWEVER: Recent research shows that the basal ganglia (primarily the caudate) is critically involved in “executive functioning”, including ADHD. In this sense, it's functionally part of the frontal lobe. (Remember the “proximity” principle from lecture: The basal ganglia--specifically the “C” shaped caudate nucleus--snuggles up to the frontal lobes and follows it's curvature).
______________ and ________________ are two “prototypical” basal ganglia disorders.
Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease
The Circuit of Papez is critical for __________ functioning. .
Memory (Specifically creation of new memories, called “encoding”). It is also involved in regulation of emotion.
The Circuit of Papez consists of the following six major components _____________, ___________, _______________, _______________, _________________, __________________, which forms a closed loop (a circle).
Hippocampus, Fornix, Mamillary Bodies, Thalamus, Cingulate Gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus. (More recent research suggests involvement by some other areas as well).
The basal ganglia model which was passed around in class (red plastic), consisted of a "C" shaped outer portion called the __________, a set of "spokes" called _________, and an inner "hub" which consists of the p_________ (
Caudate (or Caudate Nucleus), bridges, putamen, globus pallidus.
What two structures are in the inner "hub" of the basal ganglia?
Putamen and globus pallidus
Which of the two basal ganglia "hub" structures is on the inside (towards the core/thalamus)?
globus pallidus
What is the primary function of the caudate nucleus (the "C"-shaped part of the basal ganglia)?
Probably "executive" functioning, with much less role in motor functioning. The caudate has *massive* interconnections with the entire frontal cortex. In fact, it's so closely connected with the frontal lobe, that the two are often lumped together as the "frontal network".
What is the primary function of the putamen and globus pallidus (parts of the basal ganglia)?
Smoothing motor movements initiated by higher brain structures.
What structure is especially associated with intoxication and assessed by a "road-side sobriety test"?
What is the landmark that separates the frontal lobes from the parietal lobes?
central sulcus
What is the landmark that separates the temporal lobes from the parietal lobes?
sylvian fissure (or sulcus)
What landmark separates the left and right cerebral hemispheres? HINT: it is very, very deep.
longitudinal fissure
What disease is most closely associated with the substantia nigra, and what neurotransmitter is destroyed?
Parkinson's Disease. Dopamine. (The dopamine-containing neurons are destroyed in the substantia nigra).
What lobes of the brain does the central sulcus divide?
Frontal from parietal.
What lobes of the brain does the sylvian fissure (sulcus) divide?
Parietal, temporal. (It also separates a very small area of the frontal lobe near Brocas area from the temporal lobe. But that's something of a technicality)
What sensory modality is associated with the "insula"?
hearing (audition).
Where is the insula located?
Its part of the cerebral cortex which is hidden in the bottom of a "pouch" in the temporal lobe. (See the brain model.)
What kind of functioning is most associated with the frontal lobes?
Several possible answers, including (1) "Executive functioning" (Highest-level problem solving of the brain--the frontal lobes are the "CEO" of the brain). (2) Emotional regulation (dishinhibition or flatness are both sxs of frontal lobe disorder).
How can you remember that the "Caudate" (the "C"-shaped part of the frontal lobes) is primarily involved in "cognition" -- specifically executive functioning?
The "Caudate" begins with a "C", is actually shaped like a "C", and has the same beginning letter as "Cognition". ("C-audate = "C-ognition".
Where do the main descending motor tracts ("pyramidal tract") decussate (cross-over) in the brain?
lower medulla
Where do 10 of the 12 cranial nerves originate?
brain stem
Which part of the brain stem plays a major role in nonspecific arousal and activation, sleep and awakening?
reticular formation (or reticular activating system)
Which part of the diencephalon plays a primary role in controlling the autonomic nervous system?
Which part of the brain resembles two robin's eggs, connected by a small fiber tract?
the two thalami
What is the structure located between the two thalami?
third ventricle ("massa intermedia" is also correct)
True or False: The corpus callosum provides the only means for information to cross from one hemisphere to another
False (Although the CC is by far the largest tract connecting the right and left hemisphere, there are several other smaller connections which connect relatively specific areas. Perhaps most important are the anterior commissure and posterior commissure.
What is a “commissure”?
A fiber tract (primarily axons) which connects similar areas of the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
What is a “fasciculus”.
A fiber tract consisting primarily of axons (Latin. filum = a thread.) An example is the "arcuate fasciculus" which connects Broca's and Wernieke's areas. Cutting/damaging the arcuate fasciculus causes an inability to repeat examiner-spoken words, because it literally "disconnects" comprehension from speech.)
How how do “projection” and “association” tracts differ from a “commissure”?
Projection and association tracts connect different areas *within the same hemisphere*, while a commissure connects similar areas of the left and right hemispheres.
Multiple Choice: The (lateral fissure/occipital notch/sylvian fissure/ central sulcus/ calcarine sulcus) separates the frontal from the parietal lobes.
central sulcus.
Multiple Choice: (ganglia/nuclei/fissures/gyri/bumpodium) are irregularly shaped ridges between sulci on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres.
Multiple Choice: The human brain has been divided into 52 areas called (gyri, Brodmann areas, nuclei, compartmenti cerebri). ?
Brodmann areas
Multiple Choice: The cerebral cortex can be divided into specific cytoarchitonic areas (i.e., areas based on cell-structure), which are called _______________ areas. Examples are area 44 (associated with Broca’s area), area 22 (associated with Wernieke
Brodmann areas.
Choroid plexus tissue secretes what type of fluid?
Where are the choroid plexes (secretes CSF) located within the brain?
predominantly along the walls of the lateral ventricles
What are the two major functions of cerebrospinal fluid?
It protects the brain and spinal cord by acting as a buffer/shock absorber, and it disposes of waste products from the brain.
Multiple Choice: A hemorrhage which causes a blood clot between the dura matter and the skull is called a (subdural, duropetral, subarachnoid, epidural, intraparenchymal) hemorrhage.
epidural hemorrhage (or hematoma)
The central nervous system includes the _________ and the _____________.
brain, spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system consists of the _____________ (interacts with the external environment) and the ______________ (helps regulate body’s internal environment).
Somatic Nervous System (motor and sensory nerves), Autonomic Nervous System (sympathetic, parasympathetic, enteric).
What are the protective membranes that form a flexible but semipermeable protective "pad" around the brain and the spinal cord called?
What does the mnemonic PAD stand for?
pia mater, arachnoid membrane, dura mater
Which of the meninges adheres to the inner surface of the skull?
dura mater
Between which two meningal layers (P, A, D) does CSF fluid circulate on top of the brain?
arachnoid and pia matter (within the "subarachnoid space")
The term __________-dense means a lighter area of a CT scan, the term ________-dense means a darker area of the CT scan, and the term _______-dense means areas of intermediate density which appear gray.
hyperdense, hypodense, isodense.
Edema, neoplasm, and hemorrhage cause a special diagnostic characteristic on CT and MRI scans, which is called a m_______ e________.
Mass effect (so called because there is a mass which displaces other structures)
Multiple Choice: (CT/MRI/PET/SPECT) is the best imaging method for visualizing soft-tissue changes/damage in the brain--for example, multiple sclerosis lesions (demyelination of axons), thinning of the corpus callosum, changes in blood vessels due to vas
Multiple Choice: (CT/MRI, PET, SPECT) is probably the best imaging method for detecting acute hemmorhage or damage to boney structures.
CT scan (blood shows up better on CT scan because it is very dense, as opposed to softer tissues).
The original method for measuring brain activity was called the _________.
Electroencephalogram or EEG
True or False: "Functional" MRI is a specialized form of conventional MRI which allows you to visualize actual *metabolic* changes (oxygen utilization), providing a measure of brain activity.
True or False: PET is a form of MRI.
False (PET images the binding of an injected radioactive tracer to metabolically active areas of the brain. MRI, by contrast uses magnetisim to stimulate radio wave emission from molecules in the brain, each with a different radio-wave “signature”).
True or False: PET and SPECT are basically similar techniques (i.e., both use a radioactive tracer as a primary imaging method).
True (SPECT is the "poor man's PET).
True or False: PET is much less commonly used because it requires the use of an on-site cyclotron (!)—typically only available at large University-affiliated institutions.
True or False: Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry (MRS) is a very new technique which allows direct measurement of neurotransmitter activity, by detecting their metabolites. As a result, it possible to detect areas in which specific neurotransmitters are un
The myelinated tracts that run through the medulla carry information from the ipsilateral side of the brain to the contralateral side of the brain. This crossing of nerves is referred to as the d________ of the p_____________
Decussation of the pyramids.
A specific type of nerve tract originates in the brainstem and forebrain. Four of these nerves originate from nuclei in the midbrain and forebrain, and eight of these nerves originate from the medulla and pons.
Cranial nerves
The optic nerve, auditory nerve, oculomotor nerve, trigeminal nerve, vestibular nerve, are all types of ________ nerves. Most are associated with nerve g_______ in the brain stem.
cranial nerves, ganglia (collection of nerve cell bodies).
This ancient part of the brain stem contains nuclei that play a role in nonspecific arousal, cortical activation, and regulation of sleep-wake cycles.
Reticular activating system (reticular formation)
This part of the diencephalon forms the floor and (forward) lateral wall of the third ventricle. It lies "below" the thalamus and somewhat forward of it.
In a "standard" CT scans, dense material such as bone appears _______ (color word) and less dense material appears _______ .
white, black. (However, note that these colors may be reversed with different CT processing options)
The _____ scan is the preferred technique in patients with acute head trauma.
CT (allows visualization of acute hemorrhage and skull fracture better than MRI).
True or False: The MRI is a form of X-ray visualization which is especially good for detecting bone fractures.
False! The MRI does not use X-Rays--it uses magnetism to cause water molecules to emit radiowaves in a distinctive frequency.
The somatic nervous system is comprised of what two types of nerves and what do they do?
Cranial nerves and spinal nerves. These nerves carry information to muscles or sensory information back to the brain. There are 12 pair of cranial nerves, most of which synapse to the brain via nuclei in the brain stem (10/12 cranial nerves originate in the brain stem).
What is the difference between an afferent nerve and an efferent nerve?
afferent nerves are typically sensory nerves that convey messages from the sense organs to the CNS(incoming messages). Efferent nerves are typically motor nerves which carry impulses from the brain to muscles (outgoing messages) but may also carry other impulses in an outward direction from the brain.
What is the choroid plexus and what does it do?
The choroid plexus is a highly vascularized network of small blood vessels that protrude into the lateral ventricles from the lining of the pia mater. The choroid plexus produces CSF.
What is pia mater?
Pia mater is an extremely thin embrane directly adhering to the surface of the central nervous system.
What is Dura mater?
Dura mater is a dense, inelastic , double layered membrane that adheres to the inner surface of the skull.
Epileptic seizures most commonly arise in ____________.
temporal lobe, and are often associated with the hippocampus or other medial structures.
The function of association cortex is _______________ processing.
higher order information
Wernieke’s aphasia is also called receptive aphasia and is characterized receptively by __________ language difficulties, and expressively by "w_______ s________" speech.
comprehension, word salad (or "jargon-aphasia").
Which is by far the most common type of aphasia (language disorder): Broca's Aphasia or Wernieke's Aphasia?
Broca's Aphasia.
The primary somatosensory cortex lies in the ________ gyrus while the primary motor cortex lies in the__________gyrus.
postcentral, precentral
The primary _________ cortex is in the occipital lobes. The latter is bounded by the banks of a deep sulcus called the _________ ________.
primary visual cortex, calcarine fissure
The two fingerlike gyri that lie inside the sylvian fissure (in the insula, part of the temporal lobe) are called the ___________________
Transverse gyri of heschl
The most important (longest, largest) motor pathway in humans is called the _______ _______ which begins in the p______ m______ cortex.
corticospinal tract, primary motor cortex
Ataxia is a result of lesions in the___________.
Motor neurons that project from the cortex down to the spinal cord are referred to as ________, which form synapses onto the _______.
upper motor neurons, lower motor neurons
In the video shown in class,(individual who lost his memory due to viral infection), what structure was primarily affected?
hippocampus. (Herpes simplex virus has a preference for infecting this structure.) The patient also had some left frontal damage, resulting in disinhibition/emotional lability.
In the video of the individual who lost his memory, what KIND of memory recall was primarily affected?
"Encoding" (the ability to form NEW memories, rather than storing or retrieving memory).
In the video of the individual who lost his memory, why was he able to remember the wife's name, his own name, previous occupation, childhood memories, etc?
These memories were created PRIOR to the illness, and were already "consolidated" (imprinted) into the cerebral cortext. So a functioning hippocampus was not needed.
In the video (individual who lost his memory due to viral infection), do you think the patient would still be able to learn to ride a bicycle?
It's quite possible. "Procedural memory" (habits, motor-skills, etc.) is not mediated by the hippocampus and involves more robust and ancient structures (primarily motor, such as basal ganglia).
What kind of dementia has a memory effect which is similar to the patient portrayed in the video (composer who lost his memory).
Alzheimers (at least in early stages). Both primarily affect memory *encoding*. By contrast vascular dementia (reduced circulation in the core of the brain) causes more prominent *retrieval* problems.
The circuit of Papez is part of a larger system, called the _________ _________, which plays a major role in regulation of e_____________ and creation of m___________.
Limbic System. Emotion, memory.

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