Step I Equations
Terms
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 Prevalence
 Prevalence = Incidence x Duration
 Sensitivity

dz+/test+ divided by total dz+
True positive ratio
a/(a+c)  Specificity

dz/test divided by total dz
True Negative ration
d/(b+d)  Positive Predictive Value

dz+/test+ divided by total test+
a/(a+b)  Negative Predictive Value

dz/test divided by total test
d/(c+d)  Odds ratio

odds of having disease in exposed group divided by odds in unexposed group
quantitate how odds change with exposure
(a:b)/(c:d)  Relative Risk

dz risk in exposed group divided by dz risk in unexposed group
a/(a+b)/c/(c+d)  Attributable risk
 a/(a+b)  c/(c+d)
 Confidence interval

mean +/ 1.96(SEM)
SEM = (std dev)/sqrt(n)  Metabolism of FA

Acyl CoA prod = 2 ATP
Acyl CoA to Acyl CoA and Acetyl CoA = 5 ATP
Acetyl CoA in TCA cycle = 12 ATP  Cardiac Output
 O2 consumption/(PaO2PvO2)
 Mean Arterial Pressure

MAP = CO x TPR
MAP = 0.3 Systolic P + 0.6 Diastolic P  Stroke Volume
 CO/HR or ESVEDV
 Ejection Fraction
 SV/EDV
 Glomerular Filtration Rate

GFR = CLinulin
GFR = (Ui x V)/Pi  Effective Renal Plasma Flow

ERPF = CLpah
ERPF = (Upah x V)/Ppah
ERPF is essentially RPF
RBF = RPF/(1Hct)  Volume of distribution

Vd = amt drug in body/plasma concentration
[mL]
assume concentration is same in all body compartments  Vd for plasma bound drugs
 Vd = 0.03 L/kg << plasma volume
 Vd for lipid soluble drugs
 Vd . 10 L/kg > plasma volume
 Clearance

CL = rate of elim/plasma concentration
CL = ke/plasma concentration
[mL]
hypothetical volume completely cleared of drug per unit time  Halflife

t1/2 = 0.7(Vd)/CL
3.3 halflives to get to 90% of Loading dose
67 halflives to get to 100%  Loading dose

LD = target plasma concentration x Vd/F
used to reach Tx dose quickly (antidotes)  Maintenance dose
 MD = target plasma concentration x CL/F
 Enzyme kinetics: Vo
 Vo = Vmax[S]/(Km+S)
 LineweaverBurke plot: (1/Vo)
 (1/Vo) = (Km/Vmax)(1/S) + (1/Vmax)