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Acc. Chem - CH6

Terms

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bond energy
amount of energy needed to break a bond and give 2 neutral atoms
covalent bonding
bond that results from two atoms sharing valence electrons
chemical formula
gives the relative numbers and types of atoms in a compound using symbols and subscripts
valence electrons
outer shell electrons
diatomic molecule
a two atomed molecule
hybridization
the process of mixing orbitals of similar energies to glue orbitals of equal energy
dipole-dipole forces
force of attraction between polar molecules
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond with unequal sharing of the electron
octet rule
atoms tend to form bonds by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons so each has a full octet of electrons in its outer shell
molecule compound
any compound whose simplest units are molecules
metallic bonding
many empty orbitals overlap, delocalized, electrons are free to move around throughout - chemical bond results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons
hydrogen bonding
the force of attraction where a hydrogen atom, bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to unshared electrons in another molecule
ionic bonding
bond that results from the attraction between cations and anions
molecular formula
tells the types and numbers of atoms in a molecule
dipole
equal, but opposite charges separated by a short distance
london dispersion forces
only intermolecular force that effects non polar molecules - very weak intermolecular force - results from the constant, random motion of electrons
ductility
the ability to be drawn into a wire
molecule
a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
ionic compound
a compound made up of positive and negative ions in appropriate numbers so that the overall charge is neutral
non-polar covalent bond
a covalent bond with equal sharing of the electrons
malleability
can be hammered or rolled into sheets or you can change its shape very easily
VSEPR Theory
valence shell electron pair repulsion, states that electron pairs surrounding a central atom push apart as far as possible and that is what determines a molecules shape
hybrid orbitals
orbitals of equal energy produced by mixing 2 or more orbitals of similar energy
chemical bond
a mutual attraction between two atoms for electrons that holds those atoms together
noble gases
these atoms are the only ones that exist as individual atoms
bond length
the average distance between the nuclei of two atoms bonded together

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