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Ka
[A-][h30+]/[HA]
pka
-log[Ka]
Value of pkb for weak base
greater than zero
Value of pka for a weak acid
greater than zero
l
designates subshell s,p,d,f
can be 0 to n-1
ml
-l to l
number of orbital in each subshell
2l +1
maximum principal quantum number
2n^2
charge of electron
(-1.6x10^-19
E
reduction potential
E (cell)
E red + E ox
Free energey in cell
G=-nFEcell
How to calculate partial pressure
Partial pressure = mole fraction x total pressure
Gas constant
8.21 X 10^-2 Latm/molK
Gas constant in J/kmol
8.314
rate of diffusion and effusion
root of MM2/MM1
Ksp
solubility product constant
[product]^n[product]^n
Freezing point depression
Change in T= Kf x molality
Boiling point elevation
Kb x molality = T
Work
W=-P x change in Volume
osmotic pressure
Pi = MRT
Free energy of a system
Change in Heat - (temperature x change in entropy)
Beta decay change in mass
+1
Beta decay change in atomic number
none
96,485 colocoumbs/mole
Spontaneous reactions
produce electricity
nonspontaneous reaction
use electricity to produce chemical change
oxidation
loss of electrons
reduction
gaining electrons
anode
oxidation
cathode
reduction
galvanic cells are spontaneous or nonspontaneous
spontaneous
electrolytic cells are spontaneous or nonspontaneous
nonspontaneous
charge of an anode in a galvanic cell
negative
charge of an anode in an electrolytic cell
positive
source of electrons in a galvanic cell
anode
source of electrons in an electrolytic cell
cathode
charge of cathode in an electrolytic cell
negative
charge of cathode in galvanic cell
positive
nFEcell =
RTlnKeq = change in Free Energy
H of formation of a reaction
(Sum of Hf of products)- (sume of Hf of reactants)
Positive H, Negative S
nonspontaneous
Negative H, postiive S
spontaneous
Positive H, Positive S
spontaneous at high temperatures
Negative H, Negative H
spontaneous at low temperatures
Rate of a reaction
=k [A]^x [B]^y
Equilibrium constant
Kc= [product]^x/[reactant]^y
6.022 x 10^23
Plancks constant
6.626 x 10^-34
Formal charge
valence - 1/2bonding - nonbonding
Energy of planck's emitted photon
-Rh[ 1/(ni)^2 - 1/ (nf)^2
Rh
2.18 x 10^-18
alpha decay change in mass
plus four
alpha decay change in atomic number
plus two
What does it mean that electrons are quantized
they can only exist in certain fixed energy states
what happens when electron sare excited to a higher energy level and fall back to grounds state
they emit light
velocity of ilght
3.0 x 10^8
Each elemnt can have its electrons excited to differnet energy levels so it is said to have a unique what?
emission spectrum
the energy of a photon is equal to what?
E= hc/wavelength
the n quantum number describes what
size
the l quantum number describes what
shape
the ml quantum number describes what
orientation
the ms quantum nubmer describes what
spin
what is the principal quantum number
n
as the difference between adjacent shells decreases what happens to their distance from nucleus
increases
number of orbitals in s subshell
1
number of orbitals in p subshell
3
number of orbitals in d subshell
5
number of orbitals in f subshell
7
hunds rule
electrons fill all orbitals before pairing up
paramagnetic
unpaired electrons - spins are aligned with the field
diamagnetic
no unpaired electrons - slightly unalighned with external field
the rows on periodic table
rows
periods show what quantum number
principal
columns that show valence electrons on periodic table
groups
representative elemens (A)
s or p sublevels as valence
Nonrepresentative (B) elements
partly filled D and F sublevels
as number of protons in an element increase, the radius does what
decreases
ionization energy
energy required to completely remove an electron from an atom
electron affinity
the ease at which electrons can be added to an atom
when sublevels are full, electron affinity is high or low?
low
large
Ionization energy of metals
low
Electronegativity of metals
low
metal or nonmetal - high melting point
metal
metal or nonmental- high density
metal
metal or nonmetal - good conductor
metal
Metal or nonmetal - lackluster, brittle
nonmetal
metal or nonmental - small atomic radius
nonmental
metal or nonmetal - high ionization enery
nonmetal
metal or nonmetal - high electronegativity
nonmetal
Elements between metals and nonmetals
metalloids
Group IA
alkali metals
Group IIA
Alkaline earths
Halogens
Group VIIA
Halogens are highly reactive with what groups
IA and IIA
Noble gases
Group VIII - non-reactive, low bp, all gases
Groups IB - VIIIB
Transition elements - malleable and good conductors
What type of bond has high electron affinity and small ionization energy
ionic bonds
what type of bonds have weak intermolecular forces
covalent bonds
bonds with high melting and boiling points
ionic bonds
bonds with low melting and boiling points
covalent bonds
what bonds are not good conductors
covalent bonds
number of shared electron pairs between two atoms
bond order
bond length
distance between two nucei in a bond
and increase number of shared electrons increases or decreases bond length
decrease
energy required to separate 2 bonded atoms
bond energy
substance composed of two or more elements in a fixed proportion
compounds
the smallest unit of a compound
molecule
units of zero order reaction
M/sec
units of first order reaction
1/sec
half life equation
T= .693/k
units of second order reaction
1/MSec
the difference in potental energy of products and reactants
enthalpy
Keq never includes what?
solids and liquieds
If Keq is large then is there more product or reactant?
product
If Keq is small, is there more product or reactant
reactant
A system that cannot exchange energy or matter with the outside
isolated
A system that can exchange energy but not matter
closed
A system that can exchange both energy and matter
open
A system in which temperature is constant
isothermal
A system in which no heat exchange occurs
A system with no pressure change
isobaric
the heat in a reaction, q is equal to what?
q=mc(change in temp)
Heat of formation
(sum Hf of products) - (sum Hf of reactants)
Gibbs Free energy equation
G = H - TS
A reaction is spontaneous when G is less than or greater than zero?
less than
Spontaneous or nonspontaneous: H is negative S is positive
spontaneous
Spontaneous or nonspontaneous: H is positive and S is negative
nonspontaneous
Spontaneous or nonspontaneous: H and S are positive
spontaneous at high temperatures
Spontaneous or nonspontaneous: H and S are both negative
Spontaneous at low temperatures
G'= ?
-RTln Keq
G = ?
G' + RTlnQ
Standard temperature and pressure
1 atm, 273 K
An ideal gas has no what?
intermolecular forces and no volume
Ideal gases occur under what conditions?
low pressure and high temperature
Real gases have what two things that ideal gases do not have?
intermolecular forces and volume
The partial pressure of a gas is calculated with this equation
Pa= Pt x X
Kinetic energy of gases is primarily affected by what factor?
temperature, as temp increases, molecules move at higher speeds
Carbohydrates are composed of what elements and in what ratio
carbon hydrogen and oxygen )1:2:1)
Lipids are composed of what elements and in what ratio
C, H, and O with much more H than O in comparison to carbs
A lipid consists of what?
3 fatty acids and one glycerol
what gives fatty acids their hydrophobic character
long carbon chains
what gives fatty acids their acidic character
carboxylic acid groups
phosolipid is composed of what?
glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and phospate and nitrogen alcohol
caretenoids are what type of macromolecule and what is their purpose
lipid, serve as pigments
porphyrins
lipids that ahve four joined rings and are complexed with a metal
In addition to C, H, and O; proteins may also have what?
phosphorus and sulfur
what do enzymes do to the activation energy
lower it
what do enzymes do to the rate
increase it
what do enzymes do to the overall Free energy of a reaction
nothing
Nucleic acids contain the elements: ?
C, H, O, N, P
Nucleic acids are made up of
nucleotides
A nucleotide is made of what three things?
5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous basew
what type of microscopy allows specimen to be alive
phase contrast
the movement of particles due to kinetic energy which spreads small suspended particles throughout the cytoplasm of the cell
brownian movement
circular motion of cytoplasm around the cell teransport molecules
cyclosis
homologous chromosomes paire up at mitosis or meiosis
meiosis
a type of asexual reproduction in which replication of nucleus is followed by unequal cytokinesis
budding
development of an unfertilized egg into an adult organism
parthenogenesis
the female hormone that is responsible for thickening of the endometrium
estrogens
female hormone secreted by the corpus luteum during hte luteal phase of menstruation
progesterone
The follicular phase of the menstrual cycle begins wtih what?
cessation of the menstrual flow
During the follicular phase the hormone _______ released from _______ promotes ___________ and the follicle begins to secrete __________
FSH, Anterior pituitary, development of the follicle, estrogen
During ovularion , an _______ is released
ovum
Ovulation is caused by ?
a surge in LH
The surge is LH is in part caused by the peak in what hormone
estrogen
In the luteal phase, the ______hormone induces the the ruptured follicle to develop into the ___________
LH, corpus luteum
The corpus luteum secretes what
estrogen and progesterone
male organ in flowering plant
stamen
stamen contains what at the end
pollen bearing anther
female organ in flowering plant
pistil or carpal
plants alternate between ______ and __________generatioins
gametophyte and sporophyte
the gametophyte generatation is (haploid/diploid)
haploid
gametes in plants are produced by mitosis or meiosis
mitosis
gametophytes reproduce asexually or sexually
sexually
sporophytes reproduce asexually or sexually
asexually
sporophytes are (haploid/diploid) and produce (haploid/diploid) _______ via _________
diploid, haploid, meiosis
this type of RNA transports DNA from nucleus to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis
mRNA
this type of RNA translates RNA to amino acids
tRNA
this type of RNA is structrual component of Ribosomes
rRNA
process of changing DNA to RNA
Transcription
process of changing RNA to protein
translation
in translation the mRNA contains a three letter ________
codon
in translation the tRNA contains the three letter _______
anticodon
in tranlation mRNA moves in what direction
5 to 3
in translation tRNA is read in what direction
3 to 5
what are the three sites on a ribosome
A, p, E
the tRNA attaches at what site
A
the protein elongates at what site
P
an inducer must bind to a repressor to for transcription to occur in this type of system
inducible
an inducer in an inducible system binds to what?
the repressor
what binds to the repressor in a trepressible system
corepressor
without an inducer in an inducible system, transcription always occurs or never occurs
never
without a corepressor in a repressible system, transcription always occurs or never occurs
always
During what cycle of a bacteriophage does the bacterial cell burst
lytic cycle
during what cycle of a bacteriophage is the virus integrated into bacterial genome
lysogenic
the epidermis forms from this layer of the gastrula
ectoderm
the muscles are formed from this layer of the gastrula
mesoderm
epithelial linings are formed from this layer of the gastrula
endoderm
the part of the egg that lines the inside of the shell and provides a moist memebrane for gas exchange
chorion
part of the egg that encloses the yolk and contains blood vessels for food transfer
yolk sac
encloses amnionic fluid
amnion
sac like structure involved in respiration and excretion, highly vascularized
allantois
what is the purpose of the chorion
moist gas exchange surface
what is the prupose of amnion
protects developing embryo from shock
what is the purpose of allantois
respiration and exretion and transportation of gases and wastes
purpose of yolk sac
allows passage for food transport
in placental animals what functions as the chorion
placenta
in placental animals, what is analgous to the allantois
umbilical cord
in protozoans, movement of gases and nutrients is accomplished via what method
simple diffusion
hydra and cnidarians, movement of gases and nutrients is accomplished by
no specialized circulatory system. body walls are two cells thick so all cells are in direct contact with internal or external environment
arthropods movement of gases and nutrients is accomplished by
open circulatory systems
a circulatory system in which blood and interstitial fluid is in direct contact with tissues - there are no vessels
open circulatory system
circulatory system in which blood is confined to blood vessels
closed circulatory system
annelids (earthworms) use what kind of circulatory system
closed
earthworms do not have what type of cells?
red blood cells
what types of vessels have the thickest most muscular walls
arteries
what types of vessels have the thinnest walls
capillaries
blood is composed of what 4 things?
plasma, RBC, WBC, and platelets
what are the two functions of antibodies
to attract WBCs and to agglutinate cells for easy removal
obtaining immunity through an immune response
active immunity
obtaining immunity through the passage of antibodies from one animal to another
passive
type of immunology via antibodies
humoral
immunity against virus or fungus
cell mediated
what is the main function of RBC
oxygen transport
what is the main function of WBC
phagocytize, immune response
what is the main function of platelets
clot formation
what is secreted by adrenal coretex
corticosteroids
what is secreted by the adrenal medlla
epinephrine and norepinephrine
what controls the release of adrenal cortical hormones
ACTH secreted by ant pit
corticosteroids
cortisol, aldosterone, androgens
glucocorticoids raise/lower blood glucose levels
raise

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