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Treaty of Greenville 300
-A 1795 agreement in which 12 Native American Tribes surrendered much of present-day Ohio and Indiana to the U.S government.
French Revolution 301
-In 1789, the French launched a movement for liberty and equality.
Whiskey Rebellion 301
-A 1794 protest against the government's tax on whiskey, which was valuable to the livelihood of backcountry farmers.
Jay's treaty 302
-The agreement that ended dispute over American shipping during the French Revolution.
neutral 302
-Not siding with one country or the other.
Picnkney's treaty 302
-A 1795 treaty with Spain that allowed Americans to use the Mississippi River and to store goods in New Orleans; made the 31st parallel the southern U.S. border.
foreign policy 304
-Relations with the governments of other countries.
political party 304
-A group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence government, and also backs candidates for office.
District of Columbia (D.C.) 305
-Self-governing federal district between Virginia and Maryland, made up entirely of the city of Washington, the U.S. capital.
Alien and Sedition Acts 306
-A series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants to the United States.
xyz Affair 306
-A 1797 incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats.
states' rights 307
-Theory that said that states had the right to judge when the federal government had passed an unconstitutional law.
radical 313
-A person who takes extreme political positions.
judicial review 317
-The principle that the Supreme Court has the final say in interpeting the Constitution.
Marbury vs. Madison 317
-An 1803 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to abolish laws by declaring them unconstitutional.
St. Louis 320
-Missouri city at the junction of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers.
Lewis and Clark expedition 320
-A group led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark who explored the lands of rhe Louisiana Purchase beginning in 1803.
unconstitutional 317
-Something that contradicts the law of the Constitution.
Missouri River 321 m320
-Longest U.S. river, east from the Rockies to the Mississippi River.
Jacksonian democracy 370
-The idea of spreading political power to all the people, thereby ensuring majority rule.
Judiciary Act of 1801 316
-A law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new spots with Federalists.
Tariff of Abominations 381
-An 1828 law that raised the tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods; it upset Southerners who felt that economic interests of the Northeast were determining national economic policy.
impressment 327
-The act of seizing by force.
Indian Territory 376
-A present-day Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska to which Native Americans were moved under the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
33rd state. Capital: Salem.
Embargo Act of 1807 328
-An act that stated that American ships were no longer allowed to sail to foreign ports, and it also closed American ports to British ships.
War Hawk 329
-A westerner who supported the War of 1812.
Oregon Trail 396 m395
-A trail that ran westward from Independence, Missouri, to the Oregon Territory.
spoils system 373
-The practice of winning candidates giving government jobs to political backers or supporters.
33rd state. Capital: Salem
Santa Fe Trail 395 m395
-A trail that began in Missouri and ended in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Indian Removal Act 376
-This 1830 act called for the government to negotiate treaties that would require native Americans to relocate west.
Louisana Purchase 317
-The 1803 purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France.
doctrine of nullification 381
-A right of a state to reject a federal law that it considers unconstitutional.
Trail of tears 377
-The tragic journey of the Cherokee people from their homeland to Indian Territory between 1838 and 1839; thousands of Cherokee died.
Webster Hayne debate 382
-An 1830 debate between Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne over the doctrine of nullification.
secession 383
depression 386
-A severe economic slump.
Treaty of Ghent 333
-Treaty, signed in 1814, which ended the War of 1812; no territory eschanged hands and trade disputes were not resolved.
factory system 341
-A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building.
Industrial Revolution 341
-In late 18th-century Britain, factory machines began replacing hand tools and manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work.
Lowell 342
-Massachusetts city built in early 1800s as planned factory town.
20th state. Capital:Jackson.
Mississippi River
Second longest U.S. river, south from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico.
Great Plains 393 m395
-Vast grassland region in the central United States.
whig party 387
-A political party organized in 1834 to oppose the policies of Andrew Jackson.
Baltimore 332 m331
-Maryland city on Chesapeake bay.
Lowell Mill 342
-Textile mills located in the factory town of Lowell, Massachusetts, founded in 1826.
24th state. Capital: Jefferson City..
interchangeable part 343
-A part that is exactly like another part.
cotton gin 348
-A machine invented in 1793 that cleaned cotton much faster and far more efficiently than human workers.
Panic of 1837 386
-A financial crisis in which banks closed and the credit system collapsed.
Missouri River
Longest U.S. river, east from the Rockies to the Mississippi River.
18th state. Capital: Baton Rouge
spiritual 351
-A religious folk song.
American system 354
-A plan introduced in 1815 to make the United States economically self-sufficient.
nationalism 354
-A feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one's country.
Erie Canal m355
-Completed in 1825, this waterway connected New York City and Buffalo, New York.
20th state. Capital: Jackson.
Great Lakes m355
-Five connected lakes-Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michgan and Superior-on the U.S. border with Canada.
sectionalism 357
-The placing of the interests of one's own region ahead of the interests of the nation.
Fort McHenry 332 m331
-Fort in Baltimore harbor where 1814 British attack inspired U.S. national anthem.
Monroe Doctrine 359
-A policy of the U.S. opposition to any European interferences in the Western Hemisphere, announced by President Monroe in 1823.
second longest U.S. river, south from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico.
Mississippi River 146, m153
Missouri compromise 358
-A series of laws enacted in 1820 to maintain the balance of power between slave sates and free states.
24th state. Capital: Jefferson City.
18th state. Capital: Baton Rouge.
Latin America 359
-Region made up of Mexico, Carribean Islands, and Central and South America, where Latin-based languages of Spanish, French, or Portuguese are spoken.
land speculator 394
-A person who buys huge areas of land for a low price and then sells off small sections of it at high prices.

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