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NAVEDTRA 14295 Chapter 2 - Fundamentals of Patient Care


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What is the concept of "health?"
It includes the physical, mental, and emotional condition of a human beings that provide for the normal and proper performance on one's vital functions.
What is the goal of the joint Commision on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO)?
To promote excellence in providing healthcare service.
What publications contain the Patients' Bill of Rights and Responsibilities?
It's an enclosure to BUMEDINST 6300.10 series and the Accreditation Manual for Hospitals published by JCAHO.
Where should you report a patient's recommendations, questions, or complaints?
To the patient contact representative.
When does malpractice occur?
WHen an individual delivers improper care due to negligence or practicing outside of his or her area of expertise.
When are the responsibilities of Hospital Corpsman legally, which include areas of practice usually provided by physicians and nurses in the civilian sector?
Only when Hospital Corpsman are performing such duties while under the authority of the United States Government.
What is indicated by a caduceus on the sleeves of the Hospiral Corpsman?
It marks that person as a member of a prestigious corps worthy of respect.
What is meant by the word ethics?
It means customs or practice, a characteristic manner of acting, or a more or less constant style of behavior in the deliberate actions of people.
WHat is the one element that makes health care ethics different from general ethics?
The inclusion of the morale rule "Do Your Duty."
How must the corpsman view an individual when providing total patient care?
Not only as a biological being but as a thinking, feeling person. (The commitment to this concept is the key to the development of good interpersonal relationships.)
When are the responsibilities of Hospital Corpsman leagl, which include areas of practice usually provided by physicians and nurses in the civilian sector?
Only when Hospital Corpsman are performing such duties while under the authority of the United States Government.
What is the definition of culture?
A group of socially learned, shared standards (norms) and behavior patterns.
What is indicated by the term race?
A classification assigned to a group of people who share inherited physical characteristics.
When does racial identification have the potential to create a negative environment in the health care setting?
When factors such as skin color differences motivate prejudicial and segregational behaviors.
What action should be taken when asked for religious support?
You should offer that support but always provide chaplain referrals when indicated as requested, since is not ethical for you to abuse your patients by forcing your beliefs (or nonbeliefs) upon them.
What directives provides specific guidelines concerning situations where treatment must be provided to members of the opposite sex?
BUMEDINST 6320.83 series, Provisions of Standbys During Medical Examinations.
Who should be present when you are examining or treating a member of the opposite sex?
A "standby" of the patient sex if possible.
What determines the sex of the "standby" during examination of a member of a opposites sex?
The availability of a personnel
How is the health care provider able to identify the goals of the individual and the Navy health care system?
Only through effective communications.
What are the four basic parts of the human communication process?
The sender of the message, the message, the reciever of the message, and the feedback.
What are the two basic modes of communication?
Vrebal and nonverbal.
What causes physiological barriers to effective communication?
Some kind of sensory dysfunction on the part of either the sender or the reciever.
What is the critical element of the communication process and becomes a primary activity for the health care provider who must use communication as a tool for collecting or giving information?
What is an initial contact point?
A physical location where consumer experiences his or her first communication encounter with a person representing, in some role, the health care facility.
What is the initial contact point?
A physical location where the consumer experiences his or her first communication encounter with a person representing, in some role, the health care facility.
What is a contact point?
The place or event where the contact point person and the consumer meet. (The contact point meeting can occur anywhere in a facility and also includes telephone events.)
What is a contact point person?
The health care provider in any health care experience who is tasked by role and responsibility to provide a service to the consumer.
What is the definition of therapeutic communication?
The face-to-face process of interacting that focuseson advancing the physical and emotional well-being of a patient.
What are the three general purposes of therapeutic communication?
Collecting the information to determine illness, assessing and mopdifying behavior, and providing health education.
What is meant by patient education, as applied in the Navy Medical Department?
The process that informs, motivates, and helps people to adapt and maintain healthful practices and lifestyle.
When does patient teaching begin?
With an assessment of the patient's knowledge.
What is the term for the systematic gathering of information, and is an essential aspect in assessing and individual's health status?
Data collection.
What is the SOAP note format for medical documentation?
What note format is used by the Navy Medical Department to stadardize medical evaluation entries made in clinical records?
The SOAP format.
What was the initial portion of the SOAP note format consist of?
SUBJECTIVE observations, symptoms verbally given to you by thepatient or by a significant other (family or friend)
What does the OBJECTIVE portion of the SOAP note format consist of?
The objective observation which include symptoms that you can actually see, hear, touch, feel, or smell.
What follows the objective observations in the SOAP note format?
ASSESSMENT which is the diagnosis of the patient's condition.
What is the last part of the SOAP note format?
The PLAN which may include laboratory and/or radiologic tests, patient referrals and patient disposition.
What is meant by the term MEDICAL PATIENT?
Any person who is recieving diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or supportive care for a condition that is not managed by surgical-, orthopedic-, psychiatric-, or maternity-related therapy.
What is the definition of environment?
The physical surrounding of the patient and includes such things a lighting, equipment, supplies, chemicals, architectural structures, and ever present accident potential activities of both patient and staff personnel.
What is the maximum temperature of water used to fill a hot water bottle?
125 degrees F.
What should be checked on a patient when using hypothermia blankets?
Check the patient's skin freguently for signs of marked discoloration, indicating indirect localized tissue damage.
Why is maintaining cleanliness important in the health environment?
Becuase it only provides for patient comfort and a positive stimulus, it also impacts on infection control.
Why is natural light important in the care of the sick?
Because sunlight usually brightens the area and helps improve the mental well-being of the patient.
What is medical asepsis?
The term used to describe those practices used to prevent the transfer of pathogenic organisms from person to person, place to place, or person to place.
What is an infectious agent?
An organism capable of producing an infection or infectious disease.
What is a reservior of infectious agents?
A carrier of which an infectious agent depends primarilyfor survival.
What is a portal of exit?
The avenue by which the infectious agent leaves its reservior.
What is a mode of transmission?
The mechanism by which the infectious agent is transmitted from it's reservior to a susceptible being (host).
What is a portal of entry?
The avenue by which the infectious agent enters the susceptible host.
WHat is a susceptible host?
A humna being or other living organism which affords an infectious agent nourishment or protection to survive and multiply.
WHat are the two basic asepsis practices?
Handwashing and linen handling procedures.
What are the four common instances when provider handwashing is necessary?
Before and after each patient contact, before handling food and medications, after coughing. sneezing, or blowing your nose, and after using the toilet.
How should you consider the floor of a health care facility?
As grossly contaminated, and, as such, any article coming in contact with the floor is also contaminated.
What are the two kinds of disinfection practices employed by isolation techniques?
Concurrent and terminal.
What is concurrent disinfection?
It consists of the daily measures taken to control the spread of pathogenic organisms while the patient is still considered infectious.
What is terminal disinfection?
It consists of those measures taken to destroy pathogenic organisms remaining after the patient is discharged from isolation.
What is meant by surgical aseptic technique?
It is a term to describe the sterilization, storage, and handling of articles to keep them free of pathogenic organisms.
What personnel should NOT be permitted in the operating room?
Those having colds, sore throats, open sores, and other infections.
What are surgical gloves considered contaminated?
If they are torn, punctured, or have touched an unsterilized surface or item.
What is the safest, most practical method sterilization for most articles?
Steam underpressure.
What is the maximum amount of the time to use articles packaged and sterilized in cotton muslin wrappers?
28 calendar days.
What is the maximum amount of time to use articles sterilized in cotton muslin wrappers and seald in plastic?
180 calendar days.
What is meant in "sterile?"
Free from or the absence of all living organisms.
What are the physical methods of sterilization?
Moist heat and dry heat.
What are the chemical metods of sterilization?
Gas and liquid solutions.
What is the most dependable and economical method of sterilization?
Steam under pressure (autoclave).
What is the sterilization method of choice for metalware, glassware, most rubber goods, and dry goods?
Steam under pressure (autoclave).
What date is attached to each item sterilized?
The expiration of sterility.
When does the actual timing begin when using the autoclave method of sterilization?
When the temperature is above 245 degrees F.
When is the duration of the autoclave sterilazation at 270 degrees F?
Three minutes.
What is the duration of the autoclave sterilization at 257 degrees F?
Eight minutes.
What is the duration of the autoclave sterilization at 245 degrees F?
18 minutes.
What is the "flash" sterilization time for wrapped, uncovered, and opened instruments placed in perforated trays?
Three minutes at 270 degrees F.
What is the only liquid chemical, if properly used, that is capable of rendering an item sterile?
What amount of time must an item be totally submerged in glutaraldehyde for proper chemical sterilization?
10 hours.
What is the most effective method of chemical sterilization presently available?
Ethylene oxide (ETO) gas.
What is the required sterilization period for ETO gas?
It ranges from 3 to 7 hours.
What is the washing requirement for each medical instrument?
Wash after each use with an antiseptic detergent.
What are the two major categories of suture materials?
Absorbable and nonabsorbable.
What must be used as a sterile field when you are changing a dressing, removing suture, or preparing a patient for a surgical procedure?
Wrappers from sterile article as long as the inside of the wrapper remains sterile.
What is a prelude tot he surgical hand scrub?
Don a surgical cap or hood that covers all hair, both head and facial, and a disposable mask covering your nose.
What amount of antiseptic detergent is used to start the surgical hand scrub?
Approximately 6 ml with running water.
What area is included on the total surgical hand scrub?
Lather your hands and arms to 2 inches above the elbow. The total scrub procedure must include all anatomical surfaces from the fingertips to approxiamtely 2 inches above the elbow.
What is the proper way to pick a gown in the gowning technique?
In such a manner that the hands touch only the inside surface at the neck and shoulder seams.

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