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Bio Chapters 14-20


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Methamphetamine is produced from the main ingredient in cold medicines, known as __________.
All abused substances exert their effects by mimicking, or modulating the effects of, __________.
One of the worst abused substances in modern society is derived from opium and is known as __________.
The active ingredient in heroine is __________.
Indicated by cave paintings dating to 879 B.C., humans have been using __________ for many centuries.
Robert Heath discovered the pleasure center of the brain to be located in a group of neurons known as the __________.
Nucleus accumbans
Hans Kusterlitz discovered a natural brain chemical that has the same biological function as morphine, known as __________.
Morphine from heroine and endorphin both bind to the same type of neural __________.
Stimulation of the pleasure center of the brain results in the release of a particular neurotransmitter known as __________.
The most well known function of dopamine is its production of the pleasure that is associated with fulfillment of hunger and __________.
Sexual Desire
The part of the brain associated with the emotional fulfillment sensation caused by dopamine is the __________.
Ventral tegmental area or VTA
Drugs like methamphetamine cause neurons of the VTA to release dopamine at very __________ levels.
Cocaine results in an increase in dopamine levels in the synapses by binding to, and thus blocking the action of, dopamine __________.
Both cocaine and methamphetamine increase dopamine levels, resulting in a sense of __________.
Euphoria or pleasure
When a person falls in love, the brain experiences an __________in dopamine levels.
The sweaty palms and flushed cheeks that accompany falling in love ultimately result from the neurotransmitter known as __________.
Norepinephrine or noradrenalin
Phenylethylamine is a neurotransmitter involved in love and is also found in __________.
The neurological process of falling in love occurs in the part of the brain known as the __________.
Limbic system or midbrain
Long-term relationships are maintained by the production of a neurotransmitter known as __________.
Parkinson’s Disease results from decreased dopamine production by neurons of the __________.
Substantia nigra
Dopamine also plays a role in a serious mental disorder characterized by personality changes, hallucinations and psychotic behaviors, known as __________.
The pharmacological treatment for schizophrenia is, a drug that blocks dopamine receptors, known as __________.
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is caused in part by a marked __________ in dopamine levels in the brain.
A developmental disorder characterized by hyperactivity, forgetfulness, mood shifts, poor impulse control and distractibility is known as __________.
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder of ADHD
Our aggression, feelings of insecurity, resentment and other personality traits are tied to ____________________ thoughts.
When a person becomes excited, dopamine and norepinephrine are released into the synaptic clefts, and ______________ is secreted into the same area to counter the actions of the 2 neurotransmitters.
If a person’s brain produces _____________ amounts of serotonin, the neuronal excitation cannot be controlled.
Prozac or fluoxetine works by blocking the _________________.
serotonin reuptake transporters
Patients who suffer clinical depression have a shortage of _____________ in their synaptic clefts.
If you block the uptake of serotonin, the concentration of serotonin in the synapse will ____________.
The illegal drug ___________ was made famous in the 1960’s and it causes hallucinations by mimicking the action of serotonin.
The ________________ cortex contains a map of the entire body and after a person has undergone amputation of a limb, the region that represents that limb no longer receives any information.
In the case of David Garabedian, it was thought that the insecticide was responsible for his aggressive behavior. The insecticide blocks the enzyme acetylcholinesterase which leads to hyperactivation of the ______________ neurons.
During an emotional event, the hypothalamus neurons will release _________________ which will in turn initiates the fight or flight response.
In the condition known as ________________, seizures of any type will repeatedly occur unprovoked.
_____________ lobe seizures can elicit religious or mystical experiences.
Chimpanzees live in family groups with male-kin societies where females are forced to leave the group once reaching adulthood, a social structure known as a __________ society.
Humans and chimpanzees have genomes of nearly the same size and share DNA sequences similarity of __________%.
The earliest fossils with human-like feature date back to __________ million years ago.
The discovery of Lucy, a fossil nearly 4 million years old, showed the first time at which human-like ancestors walked upright, a type of locomotion known as __________.
The most widely accepted hypothesis for the evolution of bipedalism is the __________ hypothesis.
Research has shown that at least __________ different human species evolved and then went extinct.
The first human species to leave Africa was Homo __________.
As a result of an ice age 500,000 years ago, the population of humans in the North (Europe) evolved into the __________.
As a result of an ice age 500,000 years ago, the population of humans in the South (Africa) evolved into __________.
Homo sapiens
Due to a drought in Africa 120,000 years ago, the entire Homo sapien population was reduced to less than __________ individuals.
The phenomenon in which an entire population is the descendants of only a few individuals is known as a genetic __________
The discovery of the human genetic bottleneck was made by studying human __________ DNA.
Every modern human evolved from a small group of Homo sapiens that originated on the continent of __________.
When comparing the genomes of any two humans from any part of the world, their DNA sequences are __________% identical.
The hypothesis that suggests that modern Homo sapiens left Africa and out competed all other human species to extinction is the __________ Model.
Out of Africa or Replacement
The hypothesis that suggest that local population evolved into humans and subsequent interbreeding with African migrants led to the genetic homogeneity of modern humans is known as the __________ Model.
Regional Continuity or Multi-Regional Evolution
The number one infectious agent in the world that causes death in adults is __________.
Antibiotics, chemicals used for treatment of infections such as tuberculosis, were not used until the __________.
Antibiotics were discovered in 1928 by __________.
Alexander Fleming
Bacteria were first observed by Anton van Leeuwenhock in 1673 when he fashioned the first __________.
Plants and animals are composed of __________ cells.
Bacterial cells are examples of __________ cells.
Large amounts of waste dumped into rivers causes some microbes to grow to huge numbers, which depleted the dissolved __________ in the water.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are prokaryotic cells that were taken up and now reside in eukaryotic cells as organelles, a process known as __________.
Of all the biomass in the ocean, it is estimated that __________% is microbial.
Archaebacteria, a group of organisms that can survive in extreme conditions, are also known as __________.
Microbes can be used to extract metals from ore, a process known as __________.
The oldest living organism on Earth is the ____________ which was estimated at ____________ years old.
Bristlecone pine tree, 4600
In the early 20th century the life expectancy was ____________ years old and today it is much greater (77-81 years), which can be attributed to ____________ advances.
50, technological
ICSI is a fertilization technique where _____________ is directly injected into the _____________.
sperm, egg
Forming the __________ is the first step of the life cycle.
The Giant clam releases ____________ first into the ocean and then waits 30 minutes before releasing the __________________, this helps to avoid self-fertilization.
Sperm, egg
The Christmas Island crabs make a pilgrimage to the shore to lay their ____________ in the ocean even though they reside on _______________.
eggs, land
Placental mammals evolved a ____________ which allows them to develop a fertilized egg into a fully-formed animal.
After fertilization the embryo attaches to the uterus and produces the _______________ which will transfer the nutrients gained from the mother to the fetus.
The maximum _______________ ______________ represents the biological limit of a species.
Life span
A ______________ is defined as a period of unconsciousness that lasts over an hour, during which the patient’s eyes are closed.
One reason why humans and other animals have been successful is because of their ________________ body plan.
The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus invented the classification system that is used by modern biologists, which relies on __________________ traits to distinguish among species.
These proteins which act like cellular “glue” to hold cells together is called _________________.
This protein was first used by the group of animals known scientifically as __________________.
Although sponges have no muscle, no neurons, and no brain, they do have specialized cells for eating and moving water. This specialization occurred first in the group and is known as ___________________.
cell differentiation
Muscle tissue is the same in all animals, from the jelly fish to humans. The two types of proteins which enable muscles to contract are _______________ and ______________.
actin, myosin
To coordinate the motion of muscles, the cnidarians have a simple network of ________________ that allow the muscle fibers to communicate using a combination of electrical impulses and chemical signals.
Nerve Cells
Most marine flatworms produce both eggs and sperm, a condition known as __________.
In order for biological organisms to become fossilized, the bones and tissue of the organism must become __________.
When biological tissue such as bone is covered by molten rock or embedded in silt and replaced by minerals, the resulting fossil is known as a __________ fossil.
When spiders or insects are trapped in the secretions of trees that turns to amber and fossilizes them, the resulting fossils are known as __________ fossils.
A method of determining the relative age of a fossil based on how deep it is within the sedimentary rock layers of the earth’s surface is known as __________.
A type of dating that determines the date of fossils by determining the ratio between parent elements and their decay products in the rock surrounding the fossil is known as __________ dating.
A fossil that represents a particular time period is known as an __________ fossil.
In the Rocky Mountains of Canada there is an area that is unusually rich in fossils, known as the __________ __________.
Burgess Shale
Evidence suggest that the Burgess Shale was once a lime stone cliff located in the __________.
sea or ocean
The fossils found in the Burgess Shale were dated to be roughly __________ years old.
550 million
The Burgess Shale fossils are of organisms that lived in a geological period known as the __________ period.
During the Cambrian explosion, all of the current animal __________ __________evolved
body plans
The first multicellular organisms on Earth were __________.
Ancestral flatworms were the first organisms to develop a __________ body plan.
One hypothesis for the cause of the Cambrian explosion is that animals were able to evolve because a proper level of atmospheric __________ had been achieved.
The huge explosion in evolution of new body plans documented in the Burgess Shale is known as the __________ __________.
Cambrian explosion

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