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My Clinical EPPP notes


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Psychoanalytic theory says defenses are... and anxiety is due to...
Defenses are to keep impulses unconscious

Anxiety occurs when defenses break down
What is reaction formation and which personality disorder tends to use it often?
1. Reaction formation is a defense mechanism - show feeling opposite to what you're feeling
2. Tends to be used by obsessive compulsives
What did Freud focus on?
What are the stages of his theory?
What is the basic defense?
Who tends to use projection?
1. internal, unconscious drives
2. Oral Anne is a Pretty Little Girl
3. repression
4. paranoid individuals
What did Carl Jung state happens as we age?
What did he define?
1. move from introversion to extroversion
2. midlife crisis
What did Sullivan focus on?
What is parataxic?
1. cognitive experiences of infants
2. it's like transference - relate to others based upon experiences w/family members
What did the Neo-Freudians focus on?
1. social and cultural influences on personality
What did the object relations theory focus on?
What disorders does it explain?
What defenses does it define?
1. development of introjects based upon early interactions
2. borderline & narcissism
3. alloplastic (think others should change, e.g., narcissist) and autoplastic(think you should change - e.g., neurotic person)
What was Adler's theory?
What was its focus?
1. Individual Psych
2. overcoming inferiority and need for power & attention
What was Beck's theory?
What does a automatic thought mean to Beck?
Give an example of an automatic thought & define it
How do distorted percentions lead to behavior?
When are irrational thoughts maladaptive?
1. CT
2. an interpretation of a situation
3. arbitrary inference, overgeneralization, dichotomous thinking, or personalization
4. distortion -> schemata
->automatic thought->behavior
5. if interferes w/functioning
What is the Depression thought triad?
Is CT or medication better for depression?
What is the initial focus of therapy w/severe depression?
What's 1st thing to do if client severly depressed?
1. negative thoughts about self, future, & world
2. CT equal to or better than meds
3. behavioral tasks to increase activity level
4. refer for medical eval
What did Seligman contribute?

What did Michenbaum contribute?
1. Concept of learned helplessness
What is IPT?
What is its focus?
What does it state?
1. Interpersonal Therapy
2. short term therapy for depression
3. depression due to early attachment disturbances
What theory did Ellis create?
What is its focus?
What diagram describes it?
When are irrational thoughts maladaptive?
1. RET
2. irrational beliefs
3. ABC paradigm
4. always
Which Biofeedback technique good for tension headaches?
Which Biofeedback technique good for bloodflow issues like a migrane?
How effective is Biofeedback?
1. EMG
2. thermal
3. not necessarily better than simple relaxation
What do Existential/Humanist focus on?
What do they think psychopathology is?
What does psychopathology interfere with?
1. subjective experience in the here and now
2. a defense
3. personal growth
What did Maslow contribute?
What is the overall goal?
In what order are needs met?
1. Hierarchy of needs
2. self- acutalization
3. primary needs before self-actualization
What did Kohler contribute?
What did his theory lead to?
1. focus on Insight learning (ah-ha experience)
2. development of gestalt theory
What did F.Perl contribute?
What is the primary goal?
What is the focus?
What is fantasy?
1. Gestalt theory
2. awareness
3. integrating selves
4. anything outside of here and now
What is Roger's theory?
What is the goal?
What does it discourage?
1. client-centered
2. reconcile discrepancy between ideal & real self
3. diagnosis
What is Glasser's theory?
What is the goal?
What is the focus?
1. Reality
2. create a success identity
3. power, affiliation, & fun
What are 2 communication types?
Which one involves people of 2 different roles?
What is a double-bind?
1. symmetrical & complementary
2. complementary
3. when 2 aspects of the same message conflict
What did Milton Erikson contribute?
What does his intervention say to do?
What does it reduce?
1. paradoxial directive
2. increase doing behavior you want to stop
3. decrease anticipatory anxiety
What does Existential therapy focus on?
ultimate concerns of existence
What is TA?
What does it focus on?
How effective is it?
1. Transactional Analysis
2. life scripts
3. no more effective
What are 3 benefits of group therapy?
When can co-leaders resolve their conflict in front of the group?
What is a downside of doing group and individual therapy together?
1. interpersonal learning, catharsis, cohesiveness
2. in the later stages of the process
3. may cause person to have less to say in group
What is the focus of Bowen's Family therapy?
What is triangulation?
1. work w/most differentiated family member
2. each parent trying to get kid to side w/them
Personality Scales: Who is MMPI-2 designed for?
MMPI-2 uses what type of scoring?
How are MMPI-2 results analyzed?
What are the validity scales?
What is difference between MMPI-A & MMPI-2?
1. psychiatric population
2. criterion keyed - items distinguish different groups
3. pattern analysis on subscales like Hypochondriasis, Paranoia, or Social isolation
4. L scale (faking good), F scale (faking bad), K scale
5. MMPI-2 best used on >18
Other personality scales:
1. self report inventory
2. labeled as DSM categories
What is the Strong Interest inventory?
What is the Strong good for?
What is the Kuder Vocational?
What is the Kuder good for?
How do Strong & Kuder differ?
1. assesses occupational interests
2. predicting job satisfaction
Scales like realistic, artistic, etc.
3. also assesses interest
4. specific occupational areas
5. Kuder assesses areas outside of academia
What are the steps of Rorschach administration?
What does recent research say about the Rorschach?
1. introduction, instructions, responses, & inquiry (which helps with scoring)
2. validity has improved
What is the biggest suicide risk factor?
What is the goal of family therapy?
What will change the identified patient?
1. disrupt family homeostasis is the goal but maintain balance between stability & change
2. changing the family system
What did Minuchin add to family therapy literature?
What is mimesis?
1. focus on boundaries (enmeshment vs. disengagement)
2. joining w/a family
What did Haley contribute to family therapy literature?
What does it focus on?
1. strategic therapy
2. communication patterns & power conflicts
What 2 things does pain therapy involve?
1. relaxation & coping skills training
What does stress inoculation focus on?
What is it good for?
1. modify maladaptive cognitions
2. aggression & impulsiveness
What state of consciousness is hypnotherapy?
What 2 things is it good for and what is it not good for?
1. relaxed wakefulness
2. PTSD, habits – not good with severe disorders like psychosis
Does therapy cause improvement?
Is any particular therapy better than any other?
Who responds best to therapy?
What is cognitive behavioral most effective for?
Which factor influences outcome of therapy most?
Most important thera
1. yes 75% of people improve
2. no all similarly effective
3. girls, particularly adolescent girls, respond best
4. depression, phobia, aggression
5. client variables
6. competence and similarity between client & therapist therapy beliefs
7. misery/distress level & expectations
8. ethnicity influences duration in counseling
9. negatively accelerated curve - improvement seen up to 26 sessions
What are the three types of prevention?
What do they work on? (define them)
1. primary
What is brief psychotherapy?
What is the goal?
What does it say about symptoms?
1. short term attempt to reduce symptoms
2. cause insight
3. symptoms = maladjustment
What is crisis intervention?
What is the goal?
What does it say about symptoms?
1. first aid to reduce symptoms
2. return to previous functioning
3. symptoms = normal reaction to a situation
What did Prochaska & DiClemente contribute to the literature?
What is the difference between contemplation & preparation?
What is the difference between preparation & action?
1. stages of readiness for change
2. contemplation will act within 6 months but preparation will act within 1 month
3. preparation is taking small steps but action is actively engaged
What is the Halstead-Reitan?
What kind of score does it provide?
How long to administer?
1. neuro psych assmt
2. impairment index= below criterion subtest scores
3. 4-5 hours
What is the Stroop Color-Word?
What effect would be seen for people with Left frontal lobe lesions?
1. screener for frontal lobe damage
2. person reads the word instead of naming the color of the ink
Multicultural competency requires ASK. What does ASK stand for?
1. Awareness, skills, & knowledge
What is a culturally encapsulated therapist?
1. someone not aware of own biases
emic vs. etic
high context vs. low context
minority utilization of therapy?
who has highest drop out rate?
who has lowest drop out rate?
1. it varies
2. African-Americans
3. Asians
minority locus of control/responsibility in TODAY'S times?
internal locus of control
external locus of responsibility
what is a stereotype about elderly and intelligence?
intelligence declines with age
who developed a healthy identity model?
who does it develop in sooner?
1. Cass
2. boys
2 beliefs of feminist theory
Woman expert of her problems
Empower woman
% of Tourette's kids w/ADHD?
which medication will increase tics?
1. 60%
2. stimulant treatment (e.g., methylphenidate)
Two Other Neuropsych tests


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