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Chemistry Chapter 10


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kinetic energy
kenetic = motion

the energy an object has because of its motion
kinetic theory
tiny particles are in constant motion

1. a gas is composed of particles
2. the particles move rapidly in constant motion
3. all collisions are perfectly elastic
gas pressure
the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object
an empty space with no particles and no pressure
atmospheric pressure
results from collisions of air molecules with objects

*decreases as you climb a mountain because the air layer around the Earth thins out as elevation increases
devices commonly used to measure atmospheric pressure

dependent on weather
pascal (Pa)
the SI unit of pressure
standard atmosphere (atm)
the pressure required to support 760 mm of mercury in a mercury barometer at 25 deg C
1 atm =
760 mm Hg
1 atm = 760 mm =
101.3 kPa
conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor
the process when vaporization occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling
vapor pressure
a force due to the gas above the liquid
boiling point (bp)
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure
normal melting point
the boiling point of a liquid at prssure of 101.3 kPa
melting point
the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid
the atoms, ions, or molecules that make p te solid substance are arranged in an orderly, repeating, 3D pattern
unit cell
the smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains the geometric shape of the crystal
simple cubic unit cell
atoms or ions are arranged at the corners of an imaginary cube
body-centered cube unit cell
the atoms or ions are at the corners and in the center of an imaginary cube
face-centered cube unit cell
the atoms or ions are in the center of each face of the imaginary cube (no atom/ion at the center)
two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state
amorphous solids
lack an ordered internal structure
transparent fusion products of inorganic substances that have cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing
phase diagram
gives the conditions of temperature and pressure at which a substance exists as solid, liquid, and gas (vapor).
triple point
describes the only set of conditions at which all three phases can exist in equilibrium with one another
the change of a substance from a solid to a vapor without passing through the liquid state

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