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AP US History terms "Beginnings to 1763"


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General Assebly of Virginia
On July 30, 1619 the settlers organized a representative assembly. The first meeting included the governor, six counselors, and 22 burgesses. They met for five days in Jamestown.
Bacon's Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon led frontier servants, small farmers, and slaves against Virginia's wealthy planters and political leaders that resulted in the burning of Jamestown in 1676. Bacon also conducted assaults against peaceful Native Americans (he claimed they were "all alike").
The last of British colonies to be established in North America: it was unique in that it was set up as a philanthropic experiment and a military buffer against Spanish Florida. General James Oglethorpe was the soldier who designed the defenses. He also supported the establishment of Georgia as colonial refuge for the poor and for those suffering religious persecution.
headright system
A system established by the Virginia Company as an incentive to settlemtn, each settler received a "headright" of land for paying his own way or bringing others.
Anne Hutchinson
Hutchinson challenged Puritan leaders and beliefs by advocating a belief in the sanctity of one's faith and God's grace. After a two-day trial before judges and ministers, Hutchinson was banished in 1638 to an island south of Providence, Rhode Island. She died in 11644, massacred in a Native American attack.
indentured servitude
Indenture was a contract by which a person agreed to work for a specific number of years in return for the cost of transportation across the Atalantic to the colonies. Usually set for a term of four to seven years, when the indenture ended the servant could claim his freedom. Many servants died before completing their term of indenture.
Iroquois League
The Iroquois League was an alliance of five Native American tribes in central New York State who spoke related languages. In the 1600s, sachems (chiefs) made decisions for the 12,000 members. A patriarchal society by nature, women nonetheless had the power to nominate candidates to the tribal council and remove corrupt leaders.
William Bradford
Bradford was the leader of the Pilgrims and the Governor of Plymouth. Bradford kept a tight rein on the settlement, allowing ver little latitude to the colonists. He intuitively understood that their safety lay in their numbers.
The Carolinas
Founded in 1670 and named for Charles I, king of England, Carolina became prosperous from the production of rice and indigo. Its first settlement, Charleston, was the leading city of the South at the time of the American Revolution. Smaller farmers predominated in the settlement of the northern part of Carolina and in 1712 this region officially separated, creating two colonies, North and South Carolina.
The 1633 Plymouth-based group settled in the Connecticut River Valley and founded settlements three years later. Thomas Hooker led three church congregations to Wethersfield, Windsor, and Hartford. In 1639 the Connecticut General Court adopted Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a series of laws that provided a government that did not limit suffrage to church members.
Once a part of Pennsylvania, a 1701 grant gave it the right to choose its own assembly. It had the same governor as Pennsylvania until the American Revolution.
Jonathan Edwards
Edwards's most famous sermon, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," was an appeal to parishioners to repent. He did not reduce religion to an entirely emotional level, but sought to describe the glory, beauty and love of God. He was the most important leader of the First Great Awakening.
A new direction in the world of ideas climaxed by Newton's _Principia_, which described the theory of gravity. This was an investigation into narual law that could be understood through reason and explained through mathematics. Newton speculated that natural laws governed all things and reason could make people aware of natural laws.
First Great Awakening
A revival of religious zeal heralded by Jonathan Edwards that spread through the colonies. The Great Awakening brought religion to a prominent position in society. Begun in 1734, it reached its peak in 1741.
This was the culture of Northeast North America from 800 BC to AD 600. Remains found have shown a developed social structure and evidence of division of labor. Earthworks and burial mounds (some shaped like snakes, birds, and other animals) have been discovered. Hopewellians established a trade network that spanned the continent.
This native American people were settlers of present-day Mexico. They founded Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City) in 1325 and extended their control over central Mexico. Montezuma II ruled over 5 million by the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519.
biological exchange
The plants and animals of Europe and the New World were distinct biological systems. The diffusion of the two systems (animal and plant) was rapid. Native Americans knew nothing of horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goates. Europeans had never seen iguana, flying squirrels, bison, cougars, or hummingbirds. The plant exchange resulted in a revolution in diets of both hemispheres. Maize, potatoes, and beans were unknown in Europe; rice wheat, barley, oats, and bananas soon were introduced in return.
John Calvin
Calvin was a French scholar who was forced to flee from France because of his religious beliefs. He was welcomed in Geneva, Switzerland, where he developed a large following and became one of the most influential leaders in the Reformation. The Puritans and Huguenot settlers to the New World carried his doctrine.
This was the Christian religious doctrine that described all people as damned, but Christ's sacrifice made their redemption possible. Predestination was part of Calvin's doctrine, along with strict morality and hard work. Lay members could share in church governance through elders and ministers called presbytery. His doctrines became the basis for Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Puritans, and Huguenots.
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
This queen of England oversaw Church of England's shift to Protestantism. The Latin liturgy became _The Book of Common Prayer_, and clergy could marry. Some who wished to "purify" the church left England as the Puritans or Separatists.
Henry VIII (1509-1547)
This English King established the Church of England (Anglican) after the Pope refused to grant his annulment. His second wife produced not the son he sought but his daughter, Elizabeth I.
Martin Luther
This German monk posted his "Ninety-Five Theses" in protest of church abuses, especially the sale of "indulgences," a process in which priests would forgive sins in exchange for goods and money. Luther said salvation could be won only through faith in Christ and a direct relationship with God.
The settlement of the Pilgrims (Separatists), who cut off all ties to the Church of England. They initially headed for Virginia and lost their way, landing instead on Cape Cod. In 1620, 101 sailed on the Mayflower. Before disembarding, the Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact, an agreement of the group to follow the rules adopted by majority vote. Some argue this was the first example of a constitution signed in the colonies.
The serious challenges the Catholic Church began in 1517 with Martin Luther. Lutheranism, Calvinism, and other Christian doctrins spread through Europe and would later arrive in America. In England, a disagreement between Henry VIII and the Catholic pope led to the founding of the Church of England.
Captain John Smith
An adventurer, Smith was appointed to manage Jamestown. He was a strict disciplinarian and said, "he that will not work shall not eat." He bargained with the Native Americans and explored (mapped) the Chesapeake area. He returned to England in 1609 after suffering a gunpowder burn and never returned to the colonies.
Virginia Company
The London Group of the Virginia Company established the first permanent colony in Virginia in 1607 on the James River. Reorganized Jamestown governance was completed in 1609 to interest new investors. In 1618, Sir Edwin Sandys instituted reforms such as the headright policy and the first Representative Assembly in 1619.
Board of Trade
Created in 1696 to take the place of the Lords of Trade, this group supervised the enforcement of the Navigation Acts, and recommended ways to increase the production of raw materials and limit the manufacture of products.
Dominion of New England
After revocation of Massachusetts' charter, a plan to create a Dominion of New England for all colonies from New England south through New Jersey was put forth. The Dominion's governor was named by royal authority and had no assembly. It lasted until the Glorious Revolution suspended James II's authority.
Benjamin Franklin
Franklin, who became a civic leader in Philadelphia, epitomized the Enlightenment in the eyes of the Americans and Europeans. He opened a printing shop and published the Pennsylvania Gazette and Poor Richard's Almanac. He would found a library, set up a fire company, invent the lightening rod and Franklin stove, and help establish the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin's _Experiments and Oberservations of Electricity_ would establish his reputation as a thinker. He would serve as the voice of reason and caution during the debates at the Continental Congresses.
French and Indian War
This conflict (1754-1763) pitted the British against the French and their allies, the Native Americans. In 1755, the British captured Novaa Scotia and sent most of its French population across the continent. Many of the Acadians found their way to French Louisiana where they became the "Cajuns" (a corruption of Acadians). The war was waged on the frontiers of North America, but coincided with the Seven Years' War in Europe. British sea power began to cut off French reinforcements and supplies to the New World. In 1759 a three-pronged British attack ended French power in North America. The war dragged on until 1763 ending with the Peace of Paris.
fur trade
The first trading relationship between Europeans and Native Americans was in furs. The French worked much harder at maintaining a good relationship with the Native Americans than did the British. This was a reflection of the motivations for settlement: the French saw North America as a resource, the British saw it as an opportunity for expansion and settlement.
Glorious Revolution
In 1688 King James II was deposed, and William and Mary ascended to the throne. The Glorious Revolution established the principle of Parliamentary power over royal power.
Hudson's Bay Company
A British company that maintained outposts in the interior of Canada, for the purchase of furs.
Leisler's Rebellion
A local rebellion in New York by Jacob Leisler, a German immigrant who kept New York under his control for two years (supported by militia). In 1691, a new governor was appointed; Leisler was slow to turn over authority. He and his son-in-law were charged with treason and hanged; Parliament later exonerated them. The factions would affect New York politics for years afterwards.
An economic system in which economic activity is closely regulated by the government to maximize profits for the king and ruling class. Under this system the colony existed for the good of the mother country. Generally the colony's role was to provide raw materials (especially products that the mother country could produce itself) and serve as a market for goods produced in the mother country.
Navigation Acts
The 1633 Navication Act required that all goods going to the British colonies had to be routed through England. Parliament passed a restriction in 1651 that all goods imported into either England or the colonies had to be on English ships. European goods were excluded. In 1660 new requirements were added: ship's crews had to be three-quarters English and certain goods were to go only to England or the colonies. These included tobacco, cotton, indigo, ginger, sugar, and later rice, hemp, masts/spars, and furs.
New France
Permanent French settlements, the first in Quebec City in 1608, were established as a result of the Champlain-led explorations of the St. Lawrence valley. New France stretched from Nova Scotia across the Quebec area to the Great Lakes.
Peace of Paris of 1763
The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War and France's power in North America. Britain acquired all France's possessions east of the Mississippi River (except New Orleans) and took control of Spanish Florida. As compensation for Florida, Spain received Louisiana from France.
salutary neglect
Salutary neglect was the English colonial policy that allowed the colonies to grow and develop relatively unsupervised. As England was focused on fighting wars with France, colonial assemblies expanded their power and influence, graduating to self-government.
Whigs (Great Britain)
The British political party that opposed James II, led the Glorious Revolution of 1688. They were also supporters of parliamentary supremacy over royal authority.
Rhode Island
Founded by separate groups of Puritans led by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson, the colony became a haven for those who found Massachusetts Bay too restrictive.
rice and indigo
These two crops served to advance the economies of South Carolina. Indigo was a blue dye stuff that grew to be in great demand in the British woolens industry. Rice grew well in South Carolina, where tide water rivers flooded and drained.
John Rolfe
He experimented with growing varieties of tobacco. He married Pocahontas in part to divert a crisis after her capture in 1613. Her father, Powhatan, agreed to the union.
This settlement, the first permanent colony in Virginia, was established 40 miles up the James River (to hide it from the Spanish) in 1607. The colonists had difficulty building the settlement, as they were more motivated to find gold than prepare for winter weather.
John Locke
Locke was a British political philosopher and a leading figure of Enlightenment. He believed that governments derived their authority from the people. He argued that humans were created equal and had certain inalienable rights, including life, health, liberty, and possessions. Locke's political thought greatly influenced Thomas Jefferson and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
Maryland was a proprietary colony founded by Lord Baltimore in 1634 as a haven for Catholics. Baltimore was the first settlement. In 1649, the colony granted religious liberty to all Christians. At the time of the American Revolution, it had a larger percentage of Catholics than any other colony but it attracted settlers of many different denominations.
Maryland Toleration Act
This law, adopted in 1649, guaranteed that Christians would not be persecuted for their religious beliefs in Maryland. It serves as a landmark for religious tolerance even though it was limited to those who expressed belief in the Holy Trinity.
Massachusetts Bay Company
Chartered by Puritans in England, the Massachusetts Bay Company established the Massachusetts Bay Colony on a grant of land betweent the Charles and Merrimack Rivers in 1630. The company served as the government of the colony until 1684. It had America's first bicameral (2 house) assembly: the House of Assistants (modeled after the House of Lords) and the House of Deputies (modeled after the House of Commons).
Mayflower Compact
This document was written and signed by Pilgrims on the Mayflower in 1620 because they had arrived in Massachusetts and would settle beyond the jurisdiction of any organized government. They agreed to majority rule and to abide by laws made by their own chosen leaders.
New Hampshire
Puritans from the Massachusetts Bay Colony began settling New Hampshire during the 1620s and it became a separate royal colony in 1679.
New Jersey
The lands between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers were granted by the Duke of York to Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkley. Settled by the Dutch and Puritans, Newark was the first settlement. Originally divided into East and West, the two sections were united as a single royal colony in 1702.
New York
The Dutch founded New Amsterdam (now New York City) at the mouth of the Hudson River in 1624. The British took control of the region in the Second Dutch War (1664-1667) and converted it into a British proprietary colony.
William Penn
Penn received rights in 1681 to a tract stretching from Delaware River westward. He encouraged the settlement of the area by writing glowing descriptions and offering relisiou liberty and aid to immigranst. Philadelphia (City of Brotherly Love) grew as a result of his efforts. Penn learned the language of the Delaware Native Americans, and the settlers lived among the tribe peacefully for over fifty years. Penn, a Quaker, lived in the colony for only four years before returning to England.
Founded by William Penn, the colony was established on a tract of land granted to William Penn that stretched westward from the Delaware River. The first settlement was Philadelphia. The government included freemen (tax payers and property owners), and the governor had no veto power. The colony became a refuge for Quakers and other religious dissenters.
Established the Plymouth Colony. As the strictist group of Puritans, these Separatists cut all ties with the Church of England. Originaally leaving England for Holland in 1607 to escape persecution, they moved to the New World after concerns for their way of life and worship were raised.
This relicious group wanted to "purify" the Church of England, which, although it had split off from the Catholic Church, had not changed much in religious doctrine. The Puritans followed the doctrines of John Calvin and were known for their strict religious beliefs. They embraced hard work and strict laws enforcing Puritan morality. Persecuted in England, over 70,000 Puritans crossed the Atlantic to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the Great Migration of the 1630s.
Founded in 1647 by George Fox, the group favored individual inspiration and interpretation. They gave up formal ceremonies and a formal ministry, refused to offer any social ranking, and advocated a peaceful coexistence with all. They were often subjected to intense persecution but did not retaliate. Religious tolerance, equality of the sexes, and full participation of women in religious affairs were also part of their tolerance for others.
Salem Witch Trials
The hysteria began in 1691 when adolescent girls accused a number of women of being witches, resulting in the deaths of several residents. Explanations of the hysteria include longtime feuds and property disputes or just relief from everyday life. New thinking suggests the accused, all women, had defied the roles of society and were perceived as a threat to the conventional traditions.
In 1612 John Rolfe experimented with growing the plant, which was deemed harsh. He experimented with some "more palatable" Spanish hybrids and by 1616, the tobacco "weed" was exported in great quantities for European consumption.
George Whitefield
Whitefield was the 27-year-old minister who worked to restore religious fervor to American congregations through his dramatic sermonizing. He arrived in 1739 in Philadelphia and soon had everyone talking of his eloquence.
Roger Williams
Williams arrived in Massachussets in 1631. A literal separatist, he would ultimately leave for Rhode Island after banishment in 1635. Allowed to excape by Governor Winthrop, Williams established Providence, the first permanent Rhode Island settlement in 1636 and the first settlement in the New World to legislate freedom of religion. His work created a society that lived up to his principles of religious freedom and government based on the consent of the people.
John Winthrop
Winthrop served as the first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, establishing a theocracy (government by the Puritan religious leaders). Winthrop took advantage of a charter loophole that allowed him to transfer the governing power to Massachusetts, rather than London. Winthrop landed first at Salem (1630) but then eventually made Boston (then called Charlestown after King Charles I of England) the colonial seat of government.
Albany Plan of Union
The Albany Congress (1754) enlisted Iroquois support. The Plan of Union (conceived by Benjamin Franklin) described a chief executive (President-General of the United Colonies), a Grand Council of 48 chosen by colonial assemblies. This body would oversee colonial interests of defense, Native American relations, trade, and settlement of the West. Colonials rejected the plan.
Sir Edmund Andros
He was the first royal governor of the Dominion of New England (1686-1688). A former soldier, Andros was efficient and loyal to the crown, but tactless when facing resentment in Massachusetts over taxation. Andros suppressed town governments and enforced trade laws. He also took over one of the Puritan churches. After the Glorious Revolution, Andros was arrested and Massachusetts was returned to its former governor.

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