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Ms. Jackson's Russia Test

Terms

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Reds
What the Bolsheviks were known as in the civil war from 1918-1921.
Whites
What the SRs, Mensheviks, Czarists, and anti-communist foreign nations were known as in the civil war from 1918-1921.
Steppe
Fertile land, but dry. Warm, dry clime (some rain). Moderate farming. Vegetation: Mostly agriculture - wheat. High population density.
Surplus Value
A branch of Marxism which involves the belief that the profits of goods - the amount a worker was paid to make the goods = this. For example, if a worker makes $30 worth of t-shirts in a week but is only paid $5, then $25 is this.
Battle of Borodino
French "win" this but it slows them up as Moscow is burned down, which proves to be the turning point in the fights between France and Russia.
Feudalism (Serfdom)
An economic system that involves people being tied to the land; when the land gets sold, they get sold, but they always stay with the land. These people work the land for those who own it. This is the earliest economic system under Marxism, and the gap between the two classes is the greatest.
Socialist Experiments
Attempts at forming a socialist society in the hope that in the future that society can become communist. Neither of the main ones were successful in the long run.
Westernization
Bringing Western industry, technology, economics, lifestyle to a country in order to advance it
Class Struggle
A branch of Marxism which says that in every society in which there is a gap between the classes there will be an antithesis and thus a revolution, or struggle between the classes for power.
Catherine II (the Great)
Russian Czar from 1762-1796. Was an Enlightened Absolutist, but came to power when spouse was murdered. This Czar supressed the serfs and gave power to the aristocracy. Her boyfriends would become prime ministers. Expanded mostly West and South, and Westernized in literature, philosophy, and art.
Utopia
The idea original outlined by Thomas More which dealt with a society in which everyone was equal; there were no classes or private enterprises. This idea was built on by Karl Marx to form communism and later Marxism.
The Communist Manifesto
The book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.
Nicholas II
Czar from 1894-1917. Continued to industrialize Russia.
Economic Determinism
A branch of Marxism which says that societies are determined by their economies (or economic systems).
Causes of 1905 Revolution
Russia's defeat in the 1904 Russo-Japenese War, Poverty and economic distress in cities and countryside, the growth of legal (Mensheviks) and extra-legal (Bolsheviks) opposition, and the failure of the Czarist government were all this.
Inevitability of Communism
A branch of Marxism which involves Marx's theory that communism is inevitable; in every economic system in which there is a gap a revolution will occur until the lower class overthrows the upper class. With every revolution, the gap gets smaller until communism, where there is no gap. And at this point, people know that greed ambition and selfishness will only get them exiled or killed.
LENIN (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov)
Leader of the SD's and in 1903 when they split was leader of Bolsheviks, which eventually seized power in Russia. Changed name because of brother's crime. Was born middle class but University educated. Slightly changed Marxism, which became _____ism. Encouraged revolutions throughout his life. Led 1917 Revolution. Led Russia with Bolsheviks until his death in 1924.
Emancipation Edict
The plan created by Alexander II in 1861 that freed the serfs but eventually had negative effects.
Mongols/Golden Horde
Brutal killers that attacked Rus (Russia) in the 1200s; Defeated Russians and forced them to pay tribute
Alexander III
Czar from 1881-1894. Didn't want to get killed like his father, so he ended liberal reforms and returned Russia to a true autocracy, among other things (like persecuting minorities such as Jews).
Ivan V
Feodor II's second son; co-ruled with Peter I (the Great) from 1682 until his death in 1696; was a "pushover"
Enlightened Absolutist
Someone who is educated and aware, thus compassionate, but also exerts absolute power, thus is a dictator.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The treaty signed between Russia and Germany under which Russia gives up Poland Ukraine Baltic States and Finland in order to withdraw from the war (of course, when Germany's side lost the war, this treaty was negated).
Agrarian Socialism
Taking land from the rich and giving it to the poor in order to close the gap between rich and poor.
Duma
The elected parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Czar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like.
Stalin
The brutal killer who won the position at the head of Russia in 1924 after Lenin's death because he was "willing to do anything". He was crude, loud, and unscrupulous; he was also quite the drinker.
Ivan III (the Great)
Ruled from 1462-1505; In 1480 stopped paying taxes to Golden Horde (They wanted to shrink their empire); expanded a bit
Mensheviks
Means "minority". Group created from the split of the SDs, led by Martov. Tried to take power from Bolsheviks in Civil war beginning in 1918, but did not succeed.
Ivan IV (the Terrible)
Ruled from 1533-1584; Was responsible for the death of thousands, including his own son; Created the Oprichnina in order to destroy the Boyars; Believed in a Strong Centralized Government; expanded mostly south
Cheka
The secret police force created under Bolshevik rule following the 1917 revolution which helped enforce War communism.
Slavic cultures
Ukranians Belarussians Slavuks Serbians Croatians Slaveries Maravians Czechs and Poles
Trotsky
A brilliant strategist who served as commander of the victorious Reds in the civil war and Lenin's advisor until Lenin's death. He was very persuasive and had charisma; he was very good at propaganda. He fought Stalin for the head job after Lenin's death in 1924, but lost.
Provisional Government
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
Dialectic Materialism
A branch of Marxism which involves the Antithesis clashing with the Thesis and eventually forming a Synthesis.
Communism
An economic system that comes after socialism in which there is only one class. Under this there is no greed or ambition, people think "we" not "I", and there is complete equality.
The Dictatorship of the Proletariat
A branch of Marxism which involves the Proletariat ruling as a whole after a class struggle/revolution until someone (or small group) declares itself the leader.
Moscow
In the 1400s the capital of Russia was changed from Kiev to this
Peter I (the Great)
Feodor II's third son; co-ruled with Ivan V until Ivan's death in 1696; during that time he traveled the rest of Western Europe, especially around England and Holland, in order to learn some of the technology, methods, and processes of the successful Western powers. When he returned after Ivan's death, he caused extreme Westernization. In 1698 he got control of and then destroyed the Streltsy --> Becomes true dictator. Led Russia to defeat Sweden in the Northern War and acquired land for and built St. Petersburg as the new capital. Created Modern Army and first Russian Navy.
Execution of Nicholas II and Family
This occured in July of 1918. No one knows why it happened, but the captain of the Red army did the deed.
Leninism
Lenin's interpretation of Marxism. This included his belief that workers alone cannot organize a revolution; they need professional revolutionaries to give them a "shove" (inspiration), as well as his belief that sometimes a revolution must be slowed or reversed to ensure that power can be maintained by the proletariat. And finally, this made clear his belief that revolution can occur at any time, in any place, and not just in an advanced capitalist nation. This three points justified the need for Lenin and the Bolsheviks, the NEP, and all this occuring in Russia respectively.
Alexander I
Was Paul's son (Catherine II grandson). Ruled from 1801-1825.
Bloody Sunday
When on January 9th, 1905 the SRs invited people to gather for a peaceful protest but since Nicholas II didn't know it was meant to be peaceful, he sent soldiers to break it up. The soldiers opened fire on the unarmed protesters and killed 600 men women and children.
Rus
Slavic word for "Viking"; land Rurik the Viking ruled was called "Rus" or "Russia"
Boyars
Russia's nobility/aristocrats; were landowners that approved every Czar (before Ivan IV)
Forest
Deciduous forest. Temperate climate. Limited farming. Moderate to a lot of vegetation. Moderate population density.
1905 Revolution
The revolution that began January 1905 with Bloody Sunday and ended with Nicholas II creating the October Manifesto.
Marxism
The theory created by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that centers on communism and its inevitability.
Frederich Engels
Worked with Karl Marx to develop Marxism, and helped write a couple of books that outlined the ideals of Marxism and communism, and how the world will advance toward it.
Elections of 1917
The elections called for by Lenin in which he allowed anyone to run, and though he was sure he and his Bolsheviks were going to win, he lost. So he sent soldiers to break up the first meeting of the winning party.
Czars
Rulers of Russia until 1917; were supposedly appointed by God and saw themselves as "Gods" of Russia.
Moscovy
The area the surrounds Moscow (where Czars live)
Social Democratic Party (SDs)
An anti-Czar group created in 1898; believed in Marxian socialism and used revolutionary methods (violent) to oppose; was founded by Gregory Plekhanov but led by Lenin. Split in 1903 into the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks.
Kiev/Navgorad
Major cities in early Russia (pre-860s)
Bolsheviks
Means "majority". Group created from the split of the SDs, led by Lenin. Seized power in 1917 revolution. Preserved it in Civil war from 1918-1921. Instituted a policy of war communism.
Napoleonic Wars
France vs. Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia. 1806 Napoleon defeats Russia in battle. 1807 Treaty of Tilsit signed. 1812 Napoleon invades Russia; the French keep advancing and winning battles until Battle of Borodino. After battle the French must retreat, during which 700,000 of their 750,000 soldiers die. Russians Win!
Social Revolutionary Party (SRs)
An anti-Czar group created in 1902; believed in agrarian socialism and constitutional methods to oppose (Democratic); was led by Victor Chernov.
1917 Revolution
The revolution fought over the course of one year which centered on the removal of the Czar and ended with just that.
Russian Civil War (1918-1921)
The civil war which pitted the Reds againts the Whites. The Reds won because of organization skills and ownership of the powerful cities.
Nicholas I
Czar from 1825 to 1855, was Alexander I's third son: first son died, middle brother Constantine didn't want job. Introduced Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Nationalism, which his successors continued.
Capitalism
An economic system that comes after feudalism/serfdom and is split into two parts: agricultural _______ and industrial _______. Both involve owners of property or factories employing people to work for them, but since they are paid better, the gap between the classes is smaller (but still significant).
988 AD
When Deal between Vladimir I and the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire is formed: Russia gets some land (Vlad gets Emporer's sister), Russia becomes Christian (like Byzantine Empire).
Czarists
People who want the Czar back.
Great Reforms
The changes made by Alexander II around the 1860s that included abolishing serfdom and creating zemstovs.
Dynastic Rule
Rule where power is passed by blood
Karl Marx
The man who cultivated all the ideas of Thomas More, Plato, and others into his theory of ____ism, which became immensely influential Russia's plans for the future and how other powerful countries viewed Russia. Was German, but lived in London.
Napoleon Bonaparte
French Leader from 1799 to 1815. Was ambitious: wanted to dominate Europe and own US. Led France into Napoleonic Wars.
Desert
Dry. Extreme temperatures. Little to no vegetation. Low to extremely low population density.
Socialism
An economic system that comes after capitalism and involves more industry and a smaller gap between the classes. Under this system there is not as much private property as any of the others.
Vladimir I
One of the first Czars; Tried to expand south, which conflicted with Byzantine Empire. Eventually formed deal with emporer of BE
Rasputin
A man who worked as a Faith Healer and didn't bathe but had a voracious sexual appetite and "got" thousands of women. Most importantly he, in 1905, went to St. Petersburg and started to heal the Czar's son. He then started to have an affair with the Czarina, and she replaces all her old advisers with him. In 1915, he was killed by these men he replaced.
Great Schism
In 1054, there was a split between thoses Christians who want to follow the Pope and those who want to follow the Patriarch. Since Byzantine Empire becomes Orthodox, Russia becomes RUSSIAN ORTHODOX.
Taiga
Evergreen/Coniferous forest. Subarctic climate. Forestry/Industry, but no farming. Vast vegetation. Low population density.
Oprichnina
The secret army/police created by Ivan IV that he used to kill anyone who got in his way (i.e. the Boyars)
War Communism
A system introduced under Bolshevik rule after 1917 which involved land being seized and redistributed, factories given to the workers, banks being nationalized, and church property being granted to the state. This was enforced by the Cheka.
World War I
The war fought beginning in 1914 which pitted Germany, Austria and the Ottoman Empire against Britain France Russia and Italy. Russia was destroyed by this war: 8 million people died and arable land was destroyed.
Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Nationalism
Policy introduced by Nicholas I under which those who were not Russian Orthodox were persecuted or killed.
Alexander II
Czar from 1855 to 1881. Realized Serfdom didn't help agricultural efficiency nor the economy, so instituted the Emancipation Edict along with other changes that together formed the Great Reforms. These changes did not go as planned, and this person was assasinated in 1881 by a group of Jews.
Tundra
North of the Arctic Circle (66.5 degrees N), polar climate (is cold all year) --> permafrost (when the ground is permanently frosted/frozen). Vegetation: very little, no agriculture. Population density: very low.
Causes of 1917 Revolution
Poor economic conditions, growth of movements for political change (anti-Czar especially), discontentment with the corruption and autocracy of the Czarist government in place and the disasters in WWI were all this.

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