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Farque's vocab

Terms

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Celsius Scale
The metric system measures temperature using the Celsius Scale. Water freezes at 0 and boils at 100
Nucleus
the central core of all atoms that contains the protons and neutrons
What is a Eukaryotic cell?
Larger and more complex
endoplasmic reticulum
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
What is a Multicellular Organism?
An organism with more that one cell
Biology
the science of life
What is a Prokaryotic cell?
Smaller and less complex
neutron
neutrally charged particle
isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
atomic number-
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number.
Mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
mitochondria
organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
What are the central vacuoles for?
Used for waste storage
photosynthesis and respiration are:
"opposite processes: photosynthesis deposits energy respiration withdraws energy"
Atom
the simplest part of an element that retains all properties of that element
Kilogram
The basic metric unit scientists use to describe mass
Atom
Basic unit of matter.
Proton
a particle of an atom with a positive electrical charge
Electron Microscope
microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen
Weight
a measure of the pull of grafvity on that mass
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
Energy
the ability to do work
Heterotrophs
organisms that must take in food to meet their energy needs
What are autotrophs?
Organisms that can use a source of energy (sunlight etc.) to produce food from simple, inorganic molecules in the enviroment.
Metric System
decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10
Manipulated Variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as independent variable
Ionic Bond
Bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
phase
Ice, liquid, water, and water vapor- makde of the same subsntances in different states. Phase is an important physical property of matter
What are the lysosomes for?
Contain digestive enzymes
Atomic Number
the number of protons in an atom
lysosome
organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
Element
Substance consisting entirely of one type of atom.
Unicelluelar Organism
a single cell organism
Homeostasis
The process by which organisms respond to stimuli in ways that keep conditions in their body suitable for life.
In glycolysis, what happens?
a series of enzymes catalyze chemical reactions that change glucose into different molecules.
Dark reactions are also known as the:
Calvin cycle
Responding Variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable; also known as a dependent variable
chemical bond
the interactions involve the combining of atoms of elements in a process
Homeostasis
a stable level of internal conditions
Isotope
Atom of an element that has a number of nuetrons different from that of other atoms of the same element.
Covalent Bond
Bond formed by the sharing of electrons.
What are the two types of Organisms?
"Unicellular, Multicellular"
What are the two types of cells?
"Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic"
catalysts
chemical substances that reduce the activation energy needed for a reaction
Limit of Resolution
There are limits to what we can see with the compound light microscope. Beyond that point- objects get blurry and detail is lost.
proton
positively charged particle
Molecule
Smallest unit of most compounds.
Activation Energy
the energy needed to start a reaction
Asexual Reproduction
Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
Product
the end result of the reactants
Cubic Centimeter
The basic metric unit of volume for solids
What is a Unicellular Organism?
Single cell organism
cell
basic unit of all forms of life
Differentation
The process by which cells become different from each other as they multiplied and followed their genetic instructions
ribosome
Where protein synthesis occurs in a plant cell
Catabolism
The final breakdown of complex subnstances into simpler ones, usually resulting in the release of energy.
golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, & packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
lactic-acid feermentation
Which type of fermentation sometimes occurs in human muscle cells?
Compound Light Microscope
microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image
Sexual Reproduction
process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new life form
Cohesion
Attraction between molecules of the same substance.
Multicellular
Many celled organism
Electron
Negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus.
Whare are heterotrophs?
Organisms that get energy from food they consume.
Biologist
Any one who uses the scientific method to study living things
Meter
Basic unit of length in the metric system. One meter= 39.4 inches
Reactants
substances that undergo reactions to form a product
mass number
Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
active transport
energy requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentrator difference
What happens in photosynthesis?
Plants convert light energy into sugars and starches.
photosystems:
The photosynthetic membrane that are able to capture the energy of sunlight.
Ion
an atom or molecule with an electrical charge
Is fermentation aerobic or anaerobic?
"anaerobic (doesnt require oxygen)"
Anabolism
Any process in a living thing that involves putting together or synthesizing complex substances from simpler substances
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Biology
science that seeks to understand the living world
Vacuole Membrane
Surrounds the fluid-filled sac that makes up most of a plant cell
Electron
a particle of an atom with a negative electrical charge
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is...
...the most important energy-storing compound in a cell.
prokaryote
unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
Eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei
covalent bond
a chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons
Neutron
a particle of an atom with no electrical charge
tissue
a group of similar cells that perform a particular function
Stimulus
a signal to which an organism responds
Metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism build up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
Light reactions:
in the light reactions, energy of sunlight is captured and used to make energy.
Autotrophs
organisms that obtain their energy by making their own food
Hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observatioins or possible answer to a scientific question
Physical property
Properties of Matter. Mass and Volume
Inference
logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
chemical property
Describe a substances ability to change into another new substance as a result of a chemical change.
What are the chloroplasts for?
Photosynthesis
Molecule
the simplest part of a substance that retains all properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
Observation
use of one or more of the senses--sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste--to gather information
chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing genetic information that is passed from one cell to the next
Ion
Atom that has a positive or negative charge.
Science
organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world; also, the body of knowledge that scientists have built up after yearsof using this process, a particular branch of scientific knowledge, organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world
Theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
chloroplast
organelle found in plant cells that captures energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
fermentation does what?
enables cells to carry out energy production without oxygen.
chemical reaction
any process in which a chemical change occurs
nucleus
structure that contains the cell's DNA and controls the cells activity
Microscopes
instruments that produce larger than life images, pictures or even videotapes
Liter
The basic metric unit of volume for liquids
Scanning Electron Microscope
get their name from a pencillike beam of electrons that scans back and forth across the surface of a specimen.
vacuole
Cavity in the cell that contains the cell sap (water, sugar, protein)
Microscope
device that produces magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye
Dark reactions:
in the dark reactions, energy stored by the light reactions is made into glucose.
Compound
a pure substance that is made up of to or more atoms
Exergonic Reactions
chemical reactions that involve a net release of free energy
cell wall
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, & some bacteria
Covalent Bond
when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
ribosome
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled. made of RNA & protein
Van Der Waals Forces
A slight attraction that develos between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.
ionic bond
when electrons are exchanged between two atoms
Adhesion
Attraction between molecules of different substances; in plants, attraction between unlike molecules.
Multicellular Organism
an organism containing many cells
nucleus
The location of most of the genetic material in a cell
Unicellular
Organisms consisting of only a single cell
Organism
a living thing
Bonds
attachments
Transmission Electron Microscope
Shine a beam of electrons at a sample then magnify the image of that sample onto a florescent screnn at the bottom of the microscope.
Controlled Experiment
a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variablse the same
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell. regulates what enters & leaves
Electron
Negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus.
Endergonic
chemical reactions that involve a net absorbtion of free energy
Compound
Substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
2 types of fermentation:
alcoholic fermentation, lactic acid fermentation
Data
evidence; information gathered from observations
Natural Selection
the theory that organisms have certain favorable traits to help them survive
Enzyme
the most common type of catalysts
Nucleus
The center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cells genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities.
mitochondrion
organelles that provide energy for plant processes
Cell
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life
diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated

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