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Science Exam Review (still beter than Austin's)

EVERYTHING WE HAVE LEARNED THIS SEMESTER!!! (ATLEAST I THINK EVERYTHING I HERE!!)

Terms

undefined, object
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Fe
Iron
symbol, atomic mass
The element key tells you the name of the element, its atomic number, its _________ and its average _____ _____.
base
substance that accepts H(+) ions and produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
fruit salad, trail mix
heterogeneous example
balloon
Gases on the periodic table are marked with a ______.
97
more than ______% of your body is made up of varoius nonmetals
compound
2 or more kinds of atoms CHEMICALLY bonded, pure, seperated in CHEMICAL REACTIONS
hydronium ion
hydrogen ion combines with a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H3O(+)
dry ice
sublimation example
mixture
2 or more elements or compounds physically together, not pure, seperated in PHYSICAL REACTIONS
plasma
_______ is at extremely high temperatures
atomic number
Henry changed Mendeleev's periodic table from atomic mass to ________ _____.
Antoine Lavoisier
18th century scientist who discovered the law of conservation of mass
Ag
Silver
periods
the rows in the periodic table are called ______
physical change
the one change in which the form or appearance of matter changes but not the composition
Cl
Chlorine
B
Boron
ductile
drawn into wires without breaking
d X v
m= _____
3
How many categories do elements fall into?
O
oxygen
H
hydrogen
does
in the chemical change, the composition ______ change
2
How many types of mixtures are there?
P
Phosphorus
particles in matter
atoms, molecules, or ions
lanthanide, actinide
What are the two names for the two series below the periodic table?
liquid to solid
freezing
liquid particles motion
move freely, but not far apart
Br
Bromine
solution
1 substance dissolved in another- "BEST MIXED" mixture
0
At ____ (#) degrees Celsius is the freezing point.
evaporation
surface only
doesn't
in the physical change, the composition ______ change
chemical change
rotten egg, odor
N
Nitrogen
Hecto
100
specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius
gas to liquid
condensation
indicator
compound that changes color at different pH values when it reacts with acidic or basic solutions
atomic mass
the weighted average mass of isotopes of an element, found below the element symbol
gas particles motion
farther apart than liquid and solid, high speed in all directions and spread out evenly
Mn
Manganese
acetic
______ acid is found in vinegar.
carbonic
______ acid plays a key role in the formation of aves and of stalactites and stalagmites.
Al
Aluminum
change shape, dissolve, change state
examples of physical changes
Pt
Platinum
citric
______ acid is found in lemons, limes, and oranges for their sour taste.
condensation
gas condenses to a liquid
Mg
Mercury
Ca
Calcium
deposition
gas to a solid
enzyme
catalysts that are large protein molecules which speed up reactions neede for your cells to work properly
metals, metalloids, and nonmetals
list the 3 element categories
C
Carbon
acid
substance that realeases hydrogen(+) ions and produces hydronium ions when dissolved in water
F
Fluorine
metalloids
elements that have characteristics of metals and nonmetals
color, energy, odor, gases or solids
examples of chemical changes
Ba
Barium
density, solubility, melting and boiling point, magnetic, state of matter, color change
size-independent physical properties
ability to burn ability to undergo change
examples of chemical properties
atomic mass
How did Mendeleev arrange the elements in his periodic table?
brittle
cannot change shape easily w/out breaking
h2o
water
kool aid, lemonade
homogeneous example
the number of protons in the nucleus
What is the atomic number?
pH
measure of how acidic or basic a solutionis, ranging in a scale from 0 to 14
N
nitrogen
logos
The element keys have _____ for the elements that are naturally occuring on Earth. (solid, liquid, or gas)
amount energy energy
thermal energy depends on ______ of ____ and the amount of _____ each particle has
Liter
volume
same
every atom of the same element has the ______ number of protons
S
Sulfur
groups
the columns in the periodic table are called ___________
sublimation
change from the solid state to the gase state w/out becoming a liquid
chemical change
vinegar on baking soda
constantly
particles are ________ moving
Zn
Zinc
malleable
can be bent and pounded into various shapes
vibrate in place
solid particles motion
physical property
a characteristic that you can observe w/out changing or trying to chnage the composition of the substance
vaporization
liquid to gas
meniscus
what is the curve in the water line called?
Li
Lithium
solvent
substance solute is dissolved in
Kilo
1,000
15
____ years after Mendeleev made his periodic table the 3 empty blanks were discovered.
good, malleable
A metal is an element that has luster, is a ______ conductor of heat and electricity, is ________ and is ductile.
Decci
.1
neutralization
reaction in which an acid reacts with a base and forms water and a salt
heat
the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature
18
How many columns are on the periodic table?
chemical property
a characteristic that cannot be observed without altering the substance
atomic number
What is the periodic table organized by today?
chemical change
substances are changed into different substances/ the composition of the substance changes
homogeneous mixture
well mixed, same throughout, cannot see particles
bull's eye
Elements that are not naturally occuring on the periodic table are marked with a ____ ____.
90
How many elements on the periodic table occur naturally on Earth?
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element, the top number
Centi
.01
aluminum, gold
element example
properties
A period is a row of elements in the periodic table whose _______ change gradually and predictably.
sublimation example
dry ice
vaporization
the change from a liquid to a gas
amorphous
large particles that are not arranged in a repeating pattern
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
boiling
vaporization that takes place BELOW THE SURFACE of the liquid
Mg
Magnesium
evaporation
vaporization that takes place AT THE SURFACE of the liquid
Na
Sodium
Ca
calcium
Charles Law
the physical law that the volume of a fixed mass of gas held at a constant pressure varies directly with the absolute temperature
Rn
Radon
solid
ALL metalloids are ______ at room temperature
I
Iodine
colder
viscosity increases as a liquid becomes ______
activation energy
minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
inner
Some of the transition elements are called the _______ transition elements- and are placed below the main table
Kr
Krypton
soaps
most _____ are bases.
crystal
particles arranged in a repeating, three-dimensional pattern
solute
substance dissolved
element
made up of one kind of atom, pure, on the periodic table, and seperated in NUCLEAR REACTIONS
released
energy is ______ during freezing
Ar
Argon
absorbed
thermal energy is _____ during vaporization
crystal examples
table salt
Dmitri Mendeleev
who is the Russian chemist who published the FIRST VERSION of the periodic table in 1869 of the Journal of the Russian Chemical Society
gas to solid
deposition
solubility
the # of grams of on substance that will dissolve in 100g of another substance at a given temperature
chemical change
fireworks
solids
metals are all _______, (except mercury), with high melting points.
surface tension
uneven forces acting on the surface of a liquid
Se
Selenium
Cr
Chromium
acidic
sour taste, can conduct electricity, are corrosive, and some of these react strongly with certain metals, are all properties of a(n) ___________ solution
3
Mendeleev left ___ blanks empty for missing elements
nonmetals
elements that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature
7
How many periods are there?
transition
the elements in groups 3-12 are _______ elements. (they all are metals)
inhibitor
substance that slows down a chemical reaction, making the formatoin of a certain amount of product take longer
water, salt
compound
Ne
Neon
silicon
metalloid example
melting
the change from the solid state to the liquid state
NaCl
salt
physical, chemical
A group contains elements that have similar ________or ________ properties.
1869
When was the periodic table first constructed?
italian dressing
mixture example
examples of physical properties
looks, smells, sounds, and tastes
Cd
Cadmium
solid
matter with a definite shape and volume
released
thermal energy is _______ during condensation
liquid
matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape
chemical change
cement/ limestone
heterogeneous mixture
least mixed, does not appear to be same throughout, particles easy to see
concentration
describes how much solute is present in a solution compared to the amount of solvent
periods
What are the rows called?
condensation
gas to a liquid
volume, mass, weight
size-dependent physical properties
temperature up
volume up
Milli
.001
opposite
inversely
viscosity
a liquids resistance to flow
mass number
the number of protons plus the number of neutrons it contains
Grams
mass
kinetic energy
energy of motion
Al
Aluminum
snow
depositon example
metals
have a shiny or metallic luster, good conductors of heat and electricity
catalyst
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed
gas
matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
average
temperature is an _____
properties
elements with similar ________ fell into groups on the table
metalloids
shiny and many are conductors (not as good as metals)
basic
slippery feeling, taste bitter, corrosive, conduct electricity, and react with metals are all properties of __________ solutions.
melt
crystalline solids ____ when heated
sublimation
solid to a gas
drop
Liquids on the periodic table are marked with a _______.
law of conservation of mass
total mass of matter is the same before and after the physical or chemical change
2
___ elements are liquids at room temperature on the periodic table.
Henry Moseley
Who is the 20th century, english physicist that realized Mendeleev's periodic table needed improvements?
solid to liquid
melting
Deca
10
thermal energy
the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a sample of matter
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
freezing
the change from the liquid state to the solid state
boiling
inside liquid and on the surface
mercury
All metals, except ________ are solids at room temperature
Pb
Lead
plasma examples
stars, lightning, and neon lights
He
Helium
get softer
amorphous solids _____ when heated
Cu
Copper
total
thermal energy is a _____
Au
Gold
W
Tungsten
Cl
chlorine
determine a material's state of matter
motion of particles and strength of attraction
C
carbon
Au
Gold
cube
Solids on the periodic table are marked with a _______.
amorphous examples
rubber, plastic, and glass
Matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
mercury
What is the one metal that is a liquid at room temperature?
pure
elements and compounds are considered __________ substances
energy
the ability to do work or cause change
Meters
length
vapor
gas state of water
Boyle's Law
describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed container
solid to gas
sublimation
Ni
Nickel
liquid to gas
vaporization
K
Potassium
hydrogen
All gases except ______ are on the right side of the table.
O
Oxygen
Co
Cobalt
deposition example
snow
rate of reaction
measure of how fast a chemical reaction occurs
m / d
v= _
to organize the elements by their properties
Why was the periodic table constructed?
112
How many elements are on the periodic table?
key
Each element is represented on the periodic table by a box called the element _____.
temperature
the average kinetic energy of the individual particles
4 states of matter
solid, liquid, gas and plasma
Sn
Tin
Na
sodium
Si
Silicon
chemical change
leaves changing color
temperature down
volume down
gallium, scandium, germanium
What are the 3 elements discovered after Mendeleev made his periodic table?
As
Arsenic

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