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Neurologic System 2


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The CNS consists of:
brain and spinal cord
The PNS consists of:
cranial nerves and spinal nerves
Afferent pathways
carries impulses toward the CNS
Efferent pathways
carries impulses away from the CNS
Effector organs
the organs that the nerves innervate
Somatic system
in charge of voluntary movement
types of nerves in the somatic system:
sensory and motor
Autonomic nervous system
controls involuntary movement
The two subdivisions of the ANS:
sympathetic and parasympathetic
the ANS regulates:
relax, slows heart, vascular tone
the parasympathetic lacks ___ that sympathetic has
widespread response
the primary cell of the neurologic system
a neurons primary food source is:
neurons can ___ to maintain the body's homeostasis.
scan the environment, integrate information, and initiate responses
neurons tell body to:
cells in the CNS
schwann cells are located in:
the PNS
myelinated neurons conduct impulses ___ than unmyelinated neurons
the three types of neurons
sensory, interneurons, and motor
sensory neurons
carry impulse from peripheral stimulators to the CNS
interneurons/associated neurons
carry impulses from neuron to neuron
motor neurons
carry impulse away from CNS to effector organ
the space between neurons
presynaptic neuron
conduct impulse toward synapse
postsynaptic neuron
conduct impulse away from synapse
synaptic cleft
another word for the spcace between neurons
a chemical that must be synthesized in the neuron, release in the synaptic cleft, bind to a receptor site on the postsynaptic membrane of another neuron, where it affects ion channels, and is removed by a specific mechanism from its site of action
eight types of neurotransmitters
acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, histamine, GABA, endorphines, and substance P
when there is an injury to the spine:
the areas and the organs that are innervated below that level are effected
areas of skin innervation at spinal cord segments
Alzheimer disease is associated with a decrease in acetylcholine secreting neurons
a clinical example of acetylcholine dysfunction
alzheimer disease
a type of senile dementia
cocaine and amphetamines, resulting in overstimulation of postsynaptic neurons
a clinical example of norepinephrine dysfunction
use of cocaine and amphetamines:
increase the release and block the uptake of norepinephrine
myasthenia gravis results from a reduction in acetylcholine receptors
a clinical example of acetylcholine dysfunction
myasthenia gravis
weakness of skeletal muscle
involved with mood, anxiety, and sleep induction
clinical examples of serotonin dysfunction
levels of serotonin are ___ in schizophrenia.
parkinson disease results from:
destruction of dopamine-secreting neurons
parkinson disease
depression of voluntary motor control
drugs used to increase dopamine production induce:
vomiting and schziophrenia
dopamine is involved in:
the pleasure pathway
there are no clear indication of ___ -associated pathologic conditions
drugs that incease ___ function have been used to treat epilepsy
GABA/ gamma-aminobutyric acid
excessive discharge of neuron
the opiates morphine and heroin bind to ___ and ___ receptors on presynaptic neurons and reduce pain by blocking the release of neurotransmitter
endorphines and enkephalins
___ is apparently involved with arousal, pituitary hormone secretion, control of ceberal circulation and thermoregulation
a neurotransmitter in pain transmission pathways; blocking its release by morphine reduces pain
substance P
brain stem
a person who experiences death in the hindbrain will experience:
physiological death
pons controls:
forebrain controls:
cerebral impulses and function on the opposite side of the body
cranial nerve I
olfactory fibers arise from ___ and form synapses with ___, which transmit impules to ___
nasal olfactory epithelium olfactory bulbs
temporal lobe via the olfactory tract
the function of the olfactory nerve
purely sensory; carries impulses for sense of smell
cranial nerve II
optic fibers arise from ___ to form optic nerve, which passes through ___; two optic nerves then form the ___ and eventually end in ___
retina of the eye
sphenoid bone
optic chiasma
occipital cortex
the function of the optic nerve
sensory impulses for vision
cranial nerve III
oculomotor fibers arise from
midbrain and exit from skull to run to eye
oculomotor contains
motor fibers to inferior oblique, superior, inferior, and medial rectus extraocular muscles that direct eyeball; levator muscles of eyelid; smooth muscles of irisand ciliary body; and propreception to brain from extraocular muscles
cranial nerve IV
trochlear fibers emerge from
posterior midbrain and exit from skull and run to eye
oculomotor controls
pupil size
trochlear controls
eye movement
trochlear functions
proprioceptor and motor fibers for superor oblique muscle of eye
cranial nerve V
trigeminal controls the ability to:
determine hot and cold
trigeminal fibers emerge from:
pons and from three divisions that exit from skull and run to face and cranial dura mater
trigeminal nerve functions:
both motor and sensory for face; conducts sensory impulses from mouth, nose, surface of eye, and dura mater; also contains motor fibers that stimulate chewing muscles
cranial nerve VI
abducens controls the ability to:
move eye from side to side
abducens fibers leave:
inferior pons and exit from skull to run to eye
abducens contains
motor fibers to lateral rectus muscle and proprioceptor fibers from same muscle to brain
cranial nerve VII
facial fibers leave
pons and travel through temporal bone to reach face
facial nerve functions:
mixed (1) supplies motor fibers to muscles of facial expression and to lacrimal and salivary glands (2) carries sensory fibers from taste buds of anterior part of tongue
cranial nerve VIII
acoustic controls
hearing by airway conduction
acoustic fibers run from
ear (hearing and equilibrium receptors in temporal bone) to enter brain stem just below pons
acoustic functions
purely sensory; vestibular branch transmits impulses for sense of equilibrium; cochlear ranch transmits impulses for sense of hearing
cranial nerve IX
glossopharyngeal is in charge of
gag reflex, swallowing, and taste on back of tongue
glossopharyngeal fibers emerge from
midbrain and leave skull to run to throat
glossopharyngeal functions
mixed (1) motor fibers serve pharynx and salivary glands, and (2) sensory fibers carry impulses from pharynx, posterior tongue, and pressure receptors of carotid artery
cranial nerve X
vagus nerve fibers emerge from
medulla, pass through skull, and descend through neck region into thorax and abdominal region
vagus functions
fibers carry sensory and motor impulses for pharynx; a large part of this nerve is parasympathetic motor fibers, which supply smooth muscles of abdominal organs; transmits sensory impulses from viscera
vagus nerve is controlled by
vagus nerve is responsibe for
muscle and vascular tone
vagus nerve is stimulated when
heart rate decreases
cranial nerve XI
spinal accessory
spinal accessory fibers arise from
medulla and superior spinal cord and travel to muscles of the neck and back
spinal accessory functions
provides motor fibers for sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles and muscles of soft palate, pharynx and larynx
spinal accessory controls
neck muscles and shoulder strength
cranial nerve XII
hyoglossal fibers arise
from medulla an exit from skull to travel to tongue
hypoglossal functions
carries motor fibers to muscles of tongue

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