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Human anatomy chapter 4- skin and the integumentary system


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consists of the skin (an organ) and accesory organs
Integumentary system
protection, regulation of body temperature, retards water loss, houses sensory organs, synthesizes chemicals, excretes wastes
Functions of integumentary system
Stratified squamous epithelium
one cell layer thick, firmly attached to basement membrane, mitotic layer, layer that needs to be protected from the sun, contains melanocytes
Stratum germinativum
spiny layer, cell membranes pulling apart from eachother and only attached at cell junctions, several layers thick
Stratum Spinsum
contains Keratin, Keratohyalin, this layer is far enough away from blood that death can occur
Stratum Granulosum
cells flattened, densly packed together, filled with solid granules, cells deffinitely dead at this point and look translucent
Stratum Lucidum
dead cells, still inerlocking, packed with kerotin (keritinization) remain for 2 weeks before shed
Stratum Correum
skin color due to
dermal blood supply, and pigments
what pigments effect skin color
melanin and carotene
supply the blood to skin, regulate body temperature, consists of Papillary layer and reticular layer
neuron that makes something move and causes actions
motor fibers
touch receptors in skin
ineisner's corpuscle
pressure receptors in skin
Pacinian corpuscle
not technically part of the skin, lies beneath the dermis, loose CT and adipose
Superficial fascia or hypodermis
epidermal cells, extend into the dermis
hair follicles
different then sebaceious follicles, look like baby fat cells, always next to hair follicles, opens into hair follicle
Sebaceous glands
produce sebum, also has antibacterial agent to it, oily lipid that coats hair shafts
Holocrine gland
empty to skin, cause acne if clogged
Sebaceous follicles
associated w/ hair follicles, respond to emotion. Arm pit and groin, no antibacterial properties so is thick, cloudy and smelly
Apocrine glands
not associated with hair follicles, sweating through pores, not smelly, thin and watery
merocrine glands
found in ear canal, produce earwax
ceruminous glands
how does skin regulate body temperature
increase blood flow to cool off and decrease to conserve heat

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