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AP Government Vocabulary 2


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natural law
The laws of nature, laws that you were born with. (aristotle)
unitary government
system of government in which a central authority holds all power.
confederation government
system of government in which decentralized units, such as states, are clearly dominant.
delegated (enumerated) powers
specific list of Congressional powers included in Article I of the Constitution; system in which a constitution lists what a limited government is allowed to do.
separation of powers
idea that different governmental powers should be placed in separate branches (or institutions) so that no one interest can monopolize governmental authority.
checks and balances
system in which each branch of government has the ability to limit powers possessed by other branches.
New Federalism
Nixon's attempt to return authority to the states.
dual federalism
federal system in which national powers and state powers are sharply differentiated.
inalienable rights
an extension of belief that there is natural law, (a law that cannot be taken away.
Republican Government
representative or indirect government, run by elected and appointed officials who vote and propose legislation for the public interest.
Reserved Powers
those powers which could only be be excersized by the state government
Necessary and or Proper(elastic) powers
gave congress some discretion to do that which was necessary to carry out their delegated powers.
No corruption of blood
comcept that when a person commits a crime it does not effect his family
Extended Sphere
(James madison in federalist 10) national govt. would be less subjest to the effects of factions because it was large.
privileges and immunities clause
requires each state to treat citizens of all states on an equal basis.
Popular Sovereignty
idea that citizens elect government officials.
Denied powers
powers that the national and/or state government could not excersize
a legislature with two chambers.
a legislature with only one chamber.
nationalization period
marked a substatial growth of the power of the national government, dominated by federalist supreme court under leadership of John Marshall.
Secular government
the seperation between church and state
leaders in the debate over ratification who opposed the Federalists; often wanted to protect the power of state governments and therefore opposed the proposed Constitution.
block grant
general federal grants for whole areas of public policy; gives the recipient flexibility.
leaders in the debate over ratification who favored a strong national government and therefore supported the proposed Constitution.
A change or addition to the constitution
When a disagreement is settled, each side gets part of what they wanted and give up part of what they wanted.
Federal government
A type of government where the some of the power is at the national level and some of the power is at the state level.
concurrent powers
Powers shared and exercised jointly under the Constitution by both national and state governments. Examples include taxation and law enforcement.
Form of government in which political control is exercised by all the people, either directly or through their elected representatives.
Government in which political power is exercised by a single ruler under the claim of divine or hereditary right.
social contract theory
Agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in return for protection of their natural rights. A theory developed by Locke to explain the origin of legitimate government.
to revoke or annul (a law, tax, duty, etc.) by express legislative enactment; abrogate.
a group of persons exercising the major share of authority or influence within a larger group
to do away with; put an end to; annul; make void
a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few.
a governing body composed of those considered to be the best or most able people in the state.
a document defining the formal organization of a corporate body; constitution:
a form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, the God's or deity's laws being interpreted by the ecclesiastical authorities.
to confirm by expressing consent, approval, or formal sanction:
Full faith and credit clause
the concept that each state will honor the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state.
competitive federalism
period in the 90's, there was an increased competition between states and the national government to exert influence and power.
creative federalism
the 5th period under president john F. kenedy's new frontier and president lyndon johnson's great society
cooperative federalism
president roosevelt, increased cooperation made necessary because of great depression
classical republicanism
is the form of republicanism that began in classical antiquity and was revived and revised during the Renaissance.
categorical grant
federal grants that the national government determines the purposes, or categories, for which the money should be used.
popular consent (legitimacy)
whether or not people accept the validity of a law or ruling or the validity of a governing regime.
federal revenue sharing
giving an annual share of the federal tax revenue to the States and their cities, counties, isthmuses and townships.
Divine right of kings
monarch owes his rule to the will of God, not to the will of his subjects, parliament, the aristocracy or any other competing authority.
letters of marque and reprisal
an official warrant authorizing the designated agent to search, seize, or destroy specified assets or personnel belonging to a party which had committed some offense under the laws of the nation

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