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AMT Kin 1 Test 2


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What bones form the shoulder girdle?
Clavicle and scapula
What is the difference between phasic and postural muscles?
Phasic = short lived activities, fast twitch muscle fibers
Postural = prolonged activities, slow twitch muscle fibers
What is the difference between slow twitch and fast twitch fibers?
Slow twitch = red, rich blood supply, contract slowly, fatique resistant, not much power, relies on aerobic pathways
Fast twitch = white, poor blood supply, contract rapidly, fatigue easily, rely on anaerobic pathways
What is the only energy source used for contractile activities?
What is the formula for converting creatine phosphate into energy?
CP + ADP --> C + ATP
What is the formula for aerobic respiration?
O2 + glucose --> CO2 + H2O +36 ATP
What is the difference between isotonic and isometric?
Isotonic = tension remains constant, muscle shortens

Isometric = tension without movement
How much stored ATP do you have?
4-6 seconds worth.
Which process is faster anaerobic or aerobic?
What is the difference between concentric & eccentric?
concentric = muscle shortens, must overcome resistance

eccentric = muscle lengthens, yields to resistance
What are the nerves that supply the muscles of the shoulder girdle?
Cranial nerve XI, dorsal scapular nerve, medial pectoral nerve, long thoracic nerve.
What type of muscle fiber arrangement makes the strongest muscle?
Origin of trapezius
external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, c7-t12 spinous processes
Origin of levator scapulae
C1-C4 transverse processes
Origin of rhomboids
C7-T5 spinous processes
Origin of pectoralis minor
Ribs 3, 4, 5 costal cartilages
Origin of serratus anterior
Outer 8 ribs
Insertion of trapezius
Upper: lateral third of clavicle and acromion
Middle: spine of scapula
Lower: root of spine of scapula
Insertion of levator scapulae
Superior angle of scapula
Insertion of rhomboids
Vertebral border
Insertion of pectoralis minor
Coracoid process
Insertion of serratus anterior
Vertebral border/anterior surface
Action of trapezius
Upper: elevation, upward rotation
Middle: retraction
Lower: depression, upward rotation
Action of levator scapulae
elevation, downward rotation
Action of rhomboids
retraction, downward rotation
Action of pectoralis minor
depression, protraction, downward rotation
Action of serratus anterior
protraction, upward rotation
Nerve of trapezius
Cranial nerve XI (accessory nerve)
Nerve of levator scapulae
Dorsal scapular
Nerve of rhomboids
Dorsal scapular
Nerve of pectoralis minor
Medial pectoral
Nerve of serratus anterior
Long thoracic
What is oxygen debt?
The difference between the amount of oxygen needed for totally aerobic respiration during muscle activity and that which is actually used.
What's the distinguising factor of muscles of the shoulder girdle?
Origins are in the axial skeleton and the insertions are in the appendicular skeleton
What joint forms the axis of rotation for all shoulder girdle movement?
Sternoclavicular joint
What muscles produce pure protraction?
Pectoralis minor & serratus anterior
What muscle forms a bridge over the brachial plexus?
Pectoralis minor
What are some actions/activities that involve the shoulder girdle?
Swimming forward - Protraction (serratus anterior, pectoralis minor)
Swimming backward - Retraction (middle traps, rhomboids)
Pushup Up - protraction
Pushup Down - retraction

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