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Psychology Chapters 1 and 2 Exam


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Correlation and Causeation
he relationship between two variables. It allows you to predict the future

Just bc 2 var. corr. does not mean that one var. causes changes in the other.
Negitive & Positive Correlations
Neg. Oppisit effects, Pos-similar effects
Independent Variables
manipulated of changed (the assumed cause)
Dependednt Variable
Allowed to vary freeely. It is ovserved and measured (the assumed effect)
How to conduct a good experiment
Rule 1: Use control Groups(allows us to make comparisons)
Rule 2: Random assignment(prevent bias)
Rule 3: Expectency Effect(single-blind, double-blind)
Rule 4: Statistics(Descriptive/Inferential)
Rule 4:
Rule 3
Single-Blind: experiment, subject does not know what happened can't assume effects.

Double-Blind: Subject and Experimenter don't know details. Experimenter can't subtly influence results.
Rule 4
Descripitive Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Des.: One used to sumerize the data you have obtained

Inf.: Used to make generalizations beyond the observed data
Satistical Significance
In any research results may be due to chance.
Psychological Tests
Tests are widely used to measure Characteristics of human behavior
The making of a solution of definite strength so that it may be used for comparison and in tests.
The quality of the test doesn't change
Measurement of the relationship of the test question to the acutal subject behavior
Criterian Validity
Tested by correlations btw the test behavior
the part of the psyche, residing in the unconscious, that is the source of instinctive impulses that seek satisfaction in accordance with the pleasure principle and are modified by the ego and the superego before they are given overt expression.
(establised at 4/5yrs of age)the part of the personality representing the conscience, formed in early life by internalization of the standards of parents and other models of behavior.
the part of the psychic apparatus that experiences and reacts to the outside world and thus mediates between the primitive drives of the id and the demands of the social and physical environment.
The unconscious exclusion of painful impulses, desires, or fears from the conscious mind.
An unconscious defense mechanism characterized by refusal to acknowledge painful realities, thoughts, or feelings.
Reversion to an earlier or less mature pattern of feeling or behavior.
the tendency to ascribe to another person feelings, thoughts, or attitudes present in oneself, or to regard external reality as embodying such feelings, thoughts, etc., in some way.
Reaction Formation
A defense mechanism by which an objectionable impulse is expressed in an opposite or contrasting attitude or behavior.
A psychological defense mechanism in which there is an unconscious shift of emotions, affect, or desires from the original object to a more acceptable or immediate substitute.
Stage 1: Oral: 0-1yrs
mouth is focus of sensation
Stage 2: Anal : 2-3yrs
concern w/control of boily wastes
Stage 3: Phallic(Oedipal) 3-5yrs
Development of the oedipal complex first onset of sexuality, sexual feelings are focused on parents
Stage 4: Latency 6yrs-puberty
In psychoanalytic theory, the stage in psychosexual development, extending from about age 5 to age 12, when overt sexual interest is repressed or subliminated and an individual focuses on skills and activities with members of his or her own sex.
Stage 5: Genital-Puberty and beyond
the final stage of psychosexual development, in which a person achieves an affectionate, mature relationship with a sexual partner. (anal and oral fixation)

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