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-2- Micro Lecture


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Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus
Binomial nomenclature
Every organism given a double name
Scientific name
1st name - genus
2nd name- specific epithet (species)
Capitalize genus only.
Both are underlined and italicized.
1st name
specific epithet
2nd name
Microbial Ecology
The study of the relationship btwn microorganisms and the environment.
Manine and Aquatic Microbiology
Sewage Treatment and food chains
Agricultural and Soil Microbiology
Plant pathology, Carbon and Nitrogen cycles, Microbial insecticides.
Using microbes to clean up pollutants.
Food and Industrial Microbiology
Spoilage prevention (pickling, canning; packaging)
Food production: cheeses, yogurt, bread, beer, and wine.
Biotechnology/Genetic Engineering
(recombinant DNA)
Production of human proteins, genetic vaccines, and transgenic species (GMOS)
Medical Microbiology
Pathology (Etiology and Pathogenesis), Epideniology, and Immunology.
Zaccharias Janssen
Invention of the compound microscope.
Galileo Galilei
Improved on and popularized the compound microscope.
Robert Hooke
Improved the resolution and illumination (200x)
Published "Micrographia" (scientific illustrations and descriptions of minute organisms).
Slice of cork: made up of cella (Lat. for small room).
Beginning of "cell theory"... developed by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
"all living things are composed of cells"
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Ground and mounted his own lenses (200-300x)
Submitted a series of letters and drawings to the Royal Society.
First description of protozoa and bacteria "Animalcules"

1st one to see actual microbes
Spontaneous generation/ Abiogenesis
The belief that life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter.
"vital force" in matter.
Van Helmont
Recipe for the manufacture of mice.
Francesco Redi
Demonstrated that maggots do not arise spontaneously from decaying meat.
Sealed jars filled with meat - no maggots of flies
Open gars filled with meat - maggots and flies.

Counter argument: Fresh air needed for spontaneous generation

Repeated the experiment cover the jars w/ gauze.
No maggots appeared in the gauzed-covered jars.
John Needham
Microorganisms arise by spontaneous generation.

Boiled chicken and corn broth - poured into flasks -- microorganisms appeared.
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Suggested that microbes probably entered Needham's solution after boiling.

Heated solution after sealing the flask. Prolonged heat 1 hour.

No microbes appeared.

Needham's reply: Too much heat destroyed the "vital force" of the nutrient fluid.

Opened the flask, and microorganisms grew.
Spontaneous generation/abiogenesis
Van Helmont
Francesco Redi
John Needham
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Rudolf Virchow
"Living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells"
Life comes from life.
Louis Pasteur
"Swan-necked flask"
Microorganisms are present in the air
They can contaminate sterile solutions but air itself or nutrient fluids by themselves do not give rise to microbial life.
Fermentation studies: if yeast can cause changes in organic matter...perhaps microorganisms can cause disease.
Germ theory of disease
Infectious diseases are caused by living microorganisms

A specific organism causes a specific disease.
Ignaz Semelweis
Required personnel to wash their hands with CHLORIDE OF LIME.
Joseph Lister
Begin soaking dressings in carbolic acid (phenol). Dramatically reduced infection and death.
Robert Koch
First proof that bacteria cause disease.
Establish procedure for showing relation btwn a specific microbe and a specific disease.
Koch Postulates
1. Microbe must be identified in all affected animals and not in healthy animals.
2. Microbe must be isolated and grown in pure culture
3. The disease must be reproduced in experimental animals by these pure cultures.
4. The same microbe must then be recovered from the experimental animal.
Edward Jenner
Smallpox vaccination.
Noticed that patients who had recovered from cowpox/vaccinia didn't contract smallpox.

The protection from disease provided the vaccination is caled _________.
Rabies vaccine.
Paul Ehrlich
"Magic bullet"
Could destroy a pathogen w/out harming the infected individual.
Discovery of Salvarsan (compound 606) An arsenic compound effective against syphilis.
Garhard Domagk
Prontosil First sulfa drug.
Alexander Fleming

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