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Folds, Faults, and Mountains


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A convex fold in rock, the central part of which contains the oldest section of rock.
A round or oval sepression in the Earth's surface, containing the youngest section of rock in its lowest, central part.
brittle failure
The rupture of cool, near-surface rocks, caused by relatively low stress.
Stress that reduces the column or length of a rock as that produced by the conergence of plate margins.
A round or oval bulge on the Earth's surface, containing the oldest ssection of rock in its raised, central part.
elastic deformation
A temporary stress-induced change in the chape or volume of a rock, after which the rock returns to its original shape and volume.
elastic limit / yield point
The maximum stress that a given rock can withstand without becoming permanently deformed.
fault-block mountains
A mountain containing tall horsts interspersed with much lower grabend and bounded on at least one side by a high-angle normal fault.
fold and thrust mountains
Mountains that have been created by the compression of convergent plates.
A fracture dividing a rock into two sections that have not visibly moved relative to each other.
marine terrace
Formed at sea level these structures are created when surf crashes into the strata shaping its edge or terrace. Over time the land uplifts and the cycle is repeated.
normal fault
A dip-slip fault marked by a generally steep dip along wich the hanging wall has moved downward relative to the footwall.
plastic deformation
A permanent strain of rock that entails no rupture.
reverse fault
A dip-slip fault marked by a hanging wall that has moved upward relative to the footwall.
shearing stress
Stress that sliced rocks into parallel blocks that slide in opposite directions along their adjacent sides.
The change in the shape or volume of a rock that results in stress.
The force acting on a rock or another solid to deform it, measured in kilograms / sq cm or lbs / sq in
strike-slip or transform faults
A fault in which two sections of rock have moved horizontally in opposite directions, parallel to the line of the fracture that divided them. Shearing stress
A concave fold, the central part of which contains the youngest section of rock.
Stress that stretched or extends rocks, so that they become thinner vertically and longer laterally. Tension may be caused by divergence or rifting.
thrust fault
A reverse fault marked by a 45 degree dip or less.
upwarped mountains
A mountain consisting of a broad area of the Earth's crust that has moved gently upward without much apparent deformation, and usually containing sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks.

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