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Human Anatomy Chapter 1 2


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considers structures that cannot be seen without magnification
Microscopic anatomy
analyzes the internal structures of cells
the smallest units of life
examines tissues
groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specfic functions
Anatomical units, composed of tissues that have multiple functions
THe study of external and internal structures and phyiscal relationship between them, provides clues about their function
The study of function
studying macroscopic structures
Gross anatomy
studying all one system at once
looking at everything going on in an area at once
studying structures seen on outside w/o dissection
examines changes in body that occur between conception to physical maturity
Devlopmental Anatomy
back side of body, contains brain and spinal cord
Dorsal cavity
contains respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive systems etc.
Ventral/Coelom cavity
cavity with brain inside
cranial cavity
cavity with spinal cord inside
spinal cavity
Subdivided into right and left pleural cavity with area called mediastinym
thoracic cavity
contains the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Abdominopelvic cavity
contains the mouth etc.
Oral cavity
nose cavity
nasal cavity
cavity for eyeballs
orbital cavity
cavity for ears
middle ear cavity
divides thoracic from abdominopelvic
divides two pleural cavities from eachother
seperates abdominal from pelvic
pelvic bones and brim
lines body cavity
lines organ itself
name for lungs
lines heart and pericardial sac
parietal pericardium
lines heart
visceral pericardium
lines abdominopelvic cavity portion of ventral cavity
parietal peritoneum
covers each organ in abdominopelvic cavity
visceral peritoneum
above (at a higher level)
below (at a lower level)
front of body
behind or back of body
towards the center
away from mid line
towards attached base
away from an attached base
near body surface
towards interior of body
can turn into any cell (has not yet differentiated)
pleuripotent cell
collection of specialized cells and cell products that perform a relatively limited number of functions
any cell covering exposed surface and/or lining internal cavities and passageways
Epithelial tissue
tissue has no blood supply
produces a product
produces waste
one layer of cells
2 or more layers of cells
Flat epithelial tissue, easily damaged, but good for diffusion
Simple squamous epithelium
cubed shaped epithelial cells, lines kidney tubules and thyroid gland
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Epithelial cells that are taller than they are wide, found in gut, GI tract and some of respiratory tract
Simple columnar epithelium
Rare type of epithelium tissue
STratified columnar epithelium
epithelial tissue that looks like more than one cell layer, because nuclei of differenc cells at different levels, found in respiratory tract
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Epithelial tissue that is lots of layer thick and found in places with lots of mechanical stress, skin, anus, digestive tract etc.
Stratified squamous epithelium
Epithelial tissue that is in stratified layers and very stretchy and found in places needing stretch (bladder)
TRansitional epithelium
epithelial tissue that is 2 laters thick, and lines the ducts of glands and some glands
Stratified cuboidal
glands that are considered epithelium, secretions end up in duct
Exocrine glands
Glands not considered epithelium because products are picked up by blood
endocrine glands
secretion products exocytosed from cell, no damage to cell
Merocrine secretion
secretory products and part of cytoplasm are dumped into a duct then cell repairs self
Apocrine secretion
Entire cell bursts and dumpsed into duct, requires lots of mitosis to replace cells being lost
thick and straight like elastic band
Collagenous extracellular fibers
THinner curvey, stretchy fibers found where lots of flexibility is needed
Elastic extracellular fibers
Very very thin and fine fibers
reticular extracellular fibers
fibers and ground substance
often found under epithelial layer to provide it with blood
Loose (areolar) connective tissue
dense and closely packed fibers, few cells, not much room for ground substance
Dense connective tissue
Very rigid, supports and protects, forms models for developing bones
cartilage resident cells
where blood supply runs to provide cartilage with blood
resident cells in bone
most common type of cartilage. Weakest type, can't take as much abuse, but still tough. Looks shiny, and brown gel-like.
very flexible cartilage. Flexible and resilient, lots of elastic fibers
cartilage with very little ground substance, packed with calogen fibers, very very tough, makes up pads between vertebrates
made of dense irregular connective tissue in bone
Fibrous layer
osteoprogenitor cells in bone
Cellular layer
support, scaffold that gives form for other cells to hang out around
Reticular tissue
Supporting scaffold inside an organ that supports the cells
Cells are contractile, very different then other cells, excitable, cause body to move
Muscle tissue
voluntary muscle, consciously move it, and reflexes, multinucleated cells, striations
Skeletal muscle
incapable of dividing
multinucleated cells
perfectly organized actin and myocin filaments
stem cell that can only become skeletal muscle tissue, replace anything that dies or is damaged, no contractile proteins in them yet
satelite cells
Involuntary muscle, single centrally located nucleus, move food, constrict blood vessels, empty bladder
Smooth muscle
Involuntary, only found in heart, striated, single-nucleated cells, Intercalated discs
Cardiac muscle
where two cells meet, important for heart to beat, where membranes look like they're fused w/ gap junctions, cells electrically connected
Intercalated discs
found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
Nervous tissue
can be very large-carry action potentials, can also be very small

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