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Lower Extremities 2


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Color of bone marrow for adults and children
Adult: yellow in long bones
red in flat bones

Children: red
Compact Bone
external, dense osseous portion
(Aspects of long bone)
outer covering of bone
Cancellous Bone
Aspects of long bone)
spongy bone
Medullary cavity
Aspects of long bone)
contains bone marrow
Ossification of Long Bones
1. Epiphysis
2. Epiphyseal plate
3. Diaphysis
4. Metaphysis
5. Callus
ends of the bone

secondary bone growth center
Epipyseal plate
cartilage between the epiphysis and the metaphysis until growth is complete
Diaphysis (Shaft)
1. Primary growth center
2. Main part of the bone
between the diaphysis and the epiphyseal plate
healing bone following bone traum
4 Classification of Bone
a. Long: ex.femur, humerus
b. Short: carpal, tarsals, wrist
c. Irregular: vertebrae, pelvis
d. Flat: scapulae, skull, ribs
e. Sesamoid: patella
Joint Classification
a. Synarthrodial
b. Amphiarthrodial
c. Diarthrodial
d. Largest joint of the body-knee
immovable: sutures of skull
slightly movable; Distal tib-fib joint
"freely movable"
1. contains synovial fluid
2. six types
toes, knees, ankle
3. Pivot: C-1 & C2, radioulnar
4. Condyloid:metacarpophalangeal
and wrist joints
5. Saddle: thumb
6. Ball & Socket:hip/shoulder
Largest join in the body
affects the amount of calcium within the bone
(Parts of a Bone)
rounded portion usually at the proximal end of bone
(Parts of a Bone)
constricted portion below the head
(Parts of a Bone)
sharp projection of bone
(Parts of a Bone)
a prominence or projection
(Parts of a Bone)
a projecting ridge of bone
(Parts of a Bone)
a large eminence
(Parts of a Bone)
a deep indentation in the edge of a part
(Parts of a Bone)
Pit or open cavity
(Parts of a Bone)
hole or opening in a bone
(Parts of a Bone)
Elongated depression on the bone surface
(Parts of a Bone)
narrow slit between bones
(Parts of a Bone)
hollow space w/in a bone
(Parts of a Bone)
expanded portion at the end of a bone opposite the head
Appendicular Skeleton
Shoulder & pelvic girdles
Axial Skeleton
skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs
1. Greenstick:incomplete fx of long bone.
2. Compound: fracture w/c penetrates the skin
3. Comminuted: broken into more than two pieces (could be splintered or many pieces)
4. Potts: distal end of fibula
5. Colles: distal radius
6. pathological; caused by disease, not injury
General Positioning
1.Proximal: close to the source of origin
2. Distal: far from point of origin
3. Most important position when positioning patient:comfort
4. For long bones:
a. include both joints
b. AP & lat
5. For joints:
a. include a couple inches
on both sides of joint
(Upper Extremities)
Phalanges(thumb/fingers)14 bones
Metacarpals (palm) 5 bones
Carpals (wrist) 8 bones

Joints: Metacarpophalangeal(MCP) Interpphalangeal (IP)
Names of Carpals
Which proximal & distal rows?
Proximal Row:
1. Scaphoid 2. Lunate
3. Triquetrum
4. Pisiform (pea like)

Distal Row:
1. Trapezium 2. Trapezoid
3. Capitate 4. Hamate(hook)
Positioning of Hand
a. PA
1. CR: perpendicular to 3rd
mp joint
b. 45 degree OBL
c. Lateral
1. foreign body fingers are
2. fan fingers for possible
Positioning of Thumb
CR: 1st mp joint
a. AP - best for 1st mp joint
b. 45 Degree OBL-pronate hand
c. LAT-pronate hand w/finger
Positioning of Fingers
CR: PIP joint
a. AP
b. 45 degree OBL
c. LAT
Wrist Joint
1. Includes: radius & carpals
2. Landmarks: styloid process
3. Positioning:
1.flex finger to decrease
2.Styloid process:
parallel to film

b. 45 degree OBL
1. Styloid processes 45
degrees to film

c. Lateral
1. Styloid processes
perpindicular to film

d. Navicular:
1. Ulnar flexion (radial
2. CR: 20 degrees cephalad
2nd group of upper limb bones radius on the lateral or thumb side & the ulna on the medial side.
Parts of Ulna
1. Olecranon process
2. Coronoid tubercle (medial)
3. Body (Shaft)
4. Ulnar notch(on radius)
5. Head
6. Styloid process
Olecranon or Coronoid Process
two beaklike processes of the proximal ulna

olecranon proces can be palpated easily on the posterior aspect of the elbow joint
Coronoid Tubercle
medial margin of the coronoid process opposite the radial nmotch
Trochlear Notch
large concave depression or notch articulating the distal humerus
Radial Notch
small shallow depression located on the lateral aspect of the proximal ulna
Body (Shaft)
long midportion of both the radius and ulna
Head of ulna
located near the wrist at the distal end of the ulna
Head of radius
located at the proximal end of the radius near the elbow joint.
Radial Tuberosity
rough oval process on the medial and anterior side of the radius, just distal to the neck
Styloid Process
small conical projections, located at the extreme distal ends of both th eradius and ulna. Can be palpated on the thumb side of the wrist joint.
1. Includes: radius,ulna,humerus
2. Landmarks: epicondyles of
3. Positioning:
a. AP-
1.hand supinated
2.epicondyles parallel
b. Inter 45 degree OBL
1. epicondyles 45 degree
to film
2. shows coranoid process
c. Exter. 45 degree OBL
1. epicondyles 45 degrees
2. shows radial head
d. LAT
1.Hand lateral w/thumb up
2.Arm flexed 90 degrees
3.Epicondyles superimpo-
is the largest & longest bone of the upper limb. lenght on adult equals approx. 1/5 of the body height. Humerus articulates with the scapula.
Humerus Parts
1. Body
2. Coronoid fossa
3. Medial epicondyle
4. Humeral condyle
5. Trochlea
6. Trochlear sulcus(groove)
7. Ulna
8. Radial fossa
9. Lateral epicondyle
11. Head of radius
Coronoid fossa
2 shallow anterior depressions
Medial Epicondyle
larger & more prominent than the lateral & located on the meidal edge of the distal humerus
Humeral condyle
expanded distal end of the humerus
shaped like a pulley or spool
Trochlear Sulcus
two rimlike outer margins and a smooth depressed center portion
Coronoid Fossa & Radial Fossa
two shallow anterior depressions, as elbow is flexed the coronoid process and the radial head are received by these respective fossae
meaning little head is located on the lateral aspect and articulates with the head of the radius
1. Includes head of humerus &
glenoid fossa of scapula
2. Landmarks: Epicondyles of
3. Non-trauma(CR:Coracoid proc
a. AP internal rotation
1. Epicondyles perpendi
cular to film
2. Show: lesser
b.AP external rotation
1.epicondyles parallel
to film
2.Show: greater tubero-

4. Trauma
a. AP neutral (CR coracoid
b. Transthoracic lateral
1. unaffected arm above
2. CR:perpendicular to
surgical neck
Shoulder Girdle
consists of two bones:
clavicle & scapula
Parts of Shoulder Girdle
1. Surgical neck: tapered area below the head & tubercles. Site of frequent fractures requiring surgery

2. Anatomic neck: appears as a line of demarcation between the rounded head and the adjoining greater and lesser tubercle.

3.Lesser Tubercle: below the anatomic neck on the anterior surface.

4. Greater Tubercle: lateral process and the pectoralis major and supraspinatus muscles attach.

5. Clavicle - collarbone w/double curvature have 3 main parts. Articulates w/lateral or acromia extremity (end) of the clavicle articulates with the acromion of the scapula. This joint or articulation is clld acromioclavicular.

6. Scapula - shoulder blade

7. Acromion -is a long curved process extending laterally over the head of the humerus

8. Coracoid Process: is a thick, beaklike process projecting anteriorly beneath the clavicle.

9. Glenoid Fossa -
A-C Joints
1.AP with and w/out weights
2.taken to check for subluxation (dislocation)

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