This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Physiology Intro


undefined, object
copy deck
What is the Integumentary System?
Protects underlying tissues, helps regulates body temp., house a variety of sensory receptors, and synthesize certain products
What is the Skeletal System?
works w/ muscles to provide movement and supports/protests the organs
What is the Muscular System?
Provides body movement, maintain posture, and body heat
What is the Nervous System?
Communicates and sends signals to brain and then back to muscles and glands
What is the Endocrine System?
works w/ nervous system via hormones and glands to control growth, reproduction,etc.
What is the Cardiovascular System?
Deals with the distribution of blood
What is the Lymphatic System?
Often considered part of the cardiovascular system; transports fluid from the spaces within tissues back to the bloodstream, also defends the body against infections by removing pathogens
What is the Digestive System?
Receives food and then breaks it down into usable energy
What is the Respiratory System?
Deals w/ gas exchange and maintaining pH
What is the Urinary System?
Removes wastes from the blood and helps in maintaining water and electrolyte balance
What is the Reproductive System?
deals w/ the continuity of our species
Define the viscera
The organs within a cavity
Define Chemistry
the composition of substances and changes in their composition
Define biochemistry
the chemistry of living things
Define matter
anything that has weight and takes up space
Define compound
a chemical combination of elements
Define catalyst
a molecule that influences the rate of chemical reactions
Define acid
an electrolyte that releases hydrogen ions (H+)
Define base
a proton exceptor; high concentrations of hydroxide (OH-)ions make a solution basic or ALKALINE
Define salt
molecules consisting of positive and negative ions other than H+ and OH- (eg NaCl, table salt)
Define electrolyte
a substance that releases ions in water
Define Buffers
chemicals that resist change in pH
What does pH measure?
it measures the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) in a solution
What is the range of pH
0-14 0 is most acidic and 14 is most basic
What organ system is the stomach in?
Digestive System
What organ system is the brain in?
Nervous System
What organ system is the heart in?
Cardiovascular System?
What organ system is the liver in?
Digestive System
What organ system is the trachea in?
Respiratory System
What organ system is the spinal chord in?
Nervous System
What organ system is the spleen in?
Lymphatic System
What organ system is the esophagus in?
Digestive System
What organ system is the rectum in?
Digestive System
Define physiology
functions of the structure of the body
Who was the "father of medicine"?
Hippocrates-Greek (460-377BC)
Who was the "Founder of Modern Physiology"?
William Harvey-British (1578-1657)
Who was the "Founder of Modern Anatomy"?
Vesalius - Brussels (1514-1564)
What field is Bichat credited as founding?
Histology, the science of tissues and their anatomy and physiology
Define Gross Anatomy
parts of the body viewed w/ the naked eye
Define Fine Anatomy
involves cells and tissues (histology) viewed w/ microscope
Define superior
nearer the head
Define Inferior
a body part below another
Define Medial
nearer to the midline of the body
Define Lateral
furthest from the midline "the sides"
Define Cranial
referring to the head
Define Distal
located far from its attachment
Define Proximal
located near its attachment
Define Anterior
towards the front
Define Posterior
towards the back
Define Ventral
towards the front in humans, in animals the belly
Define Dorsal
towards the back;
Define Thoracic Cavity
contains lungs, heart, trachea, etc.
Define cranial cavity
contains brain and skull
Name the 7 Basic levels of organization
chemical, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Homeostasis was coined by...
Walter Cannon
Define Homeostasis
composition of the body's internal environment maintained as relatively constant w/ only minor changes which are kept within narrow limits
What is extra cellular fluid (ECF)?
the fluid outside the cell
What is intra cellular fluid (ICF)?
fluid inside your cells, very different from ECF
What are the major chemical elements in the body?
65% oxygen 18% Carbon 9.5% Hydrogen 3.3% Nitrogen
What is the function of calcium
to build bones and help w/ muscle contracting
What is the function of Phosphorus
Involved in skeletal system and other parts
What is the function of potassium?
a crucial electrolyte involved in normal nerve cell message transmition and heartbeat conduction
What are all the important minerals in the body?
Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium
Define ions
charged atoms
Where is energy stored in the body?
chemical bonds; given off when broken
Define metabolism
the use of food by the body
what are the 5 requirements of life
water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure
What is negative feedback?
When receptors measure a change in the internal environment, effectors kick in. As the body goes back to normal the effectors shut down
What is in the Abdominopelvic cavity?
Contains digestive organs, kidney, reproductive organs, bladder, rectum--pelvic+abdominal
Define Anatomy
structural makeup of the body (or an organism)
Define trace element
needed in very small amnts., but essential to the body
Give 4 examples of important trace elements in the body
iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), and Iodine (I)
Give 3 examples of biochemistry in the body
Metabolism, DNA replication, how drugs affect the body
Define dissociate
when an electrolyte breaks apart into seperete ions
What is the primary concern of the body and how does it accomplish that?
Survival, through homeostasis
What is the immune system
deals w. defending or protecting the body
What are the senses' function?
interprit stimuli from the environment
What is the function of the blood?
distributes oxygen and other gases plus nutrients and hormones
What is the excretory system?
deals w/ the removal of the body's waste products and deals w/ pH
What are the 4 main tissues of the body
nervous tissue, muscle tissue, epithilial tissue, connective tissue
What is the function of the nervous tissue?
to communicate and control behavior and other activities (eg thinking and eating at the same time)
What is the function of the muscle tissue?
to move the body and its parts, is capable of shortening (contracting) and can produce locamotion (movement)
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth (visceral) muscle tissue
What is the function of epithilial tissue?
covering,protecting, secreting, and absorbing materials such as sweat and oil
What is the function of connective tissue?
supporting, transporting, protecting, and immune response
define reactants
those being changed by chemical reactions
define products
those formed at the conclusion
define synthesis
when two or more ions combine to form a more complex structure
Define decomposition
if the bonds of a reactant break to form simpler molecules
what is a synthetic reaction
building larger molecules from small ones
In this reaction parts of two kinds of molecules trade positions
exchange reaction
A reversible reaction is when
the product can change back to the reactants
What is an organic compund
those that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms
__________ provide much of the energy that cells require. They also supply materials to build certain cell structures, and they often are stored as reserve energy supplies.
Carbohydrates are_________ molecules
Simple carbohydrates are:
complex carbohydrates are:
what is an example of a complex carbohydrate
define lipids
a group of organic chemicals that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic substances

Deck Info