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Ch 18 Psychology Words


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social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
group polarization
the enhancement of a groups prevailing attitude through discussion within a group.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restrait occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
frustration-agression principle
the principle that frustration-theblocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking them.
a condition in which people receive ffrom a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
G.R.I.T. (graduated and reciprocal initiatives in tension-reduction)
a strategy designed to decrease international tension
social psychology
studies way people relate to others
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
The case whereby people (1) have an expectation about waht another person is like, which (2) influences how they act toward that person, which (3) causes that person to behave consistently with people's expecations, making the expecations come true
Social-exchange theory
the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's costs.
Adjusting our behavior to line up with group standard
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoide disaproval
Informational Social Influence
influence from ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality
Social Facilitation
Improved performance of tasks in prescence of others ; occurs with simple tasks, not difficult ones
Behavior intended to hurt/destroy
Perceived incompatibility of actions,goals, or ideas
Passionate Love
Aroused state of intense positive absorbtion in another, usually at the beg of a relationship
Companionate Love
Deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whome our lives are intertwined
revealing intimate aspects of oneself with another
Self-fulfilling prophecys
One persons beliefs lead to acting in ways that induce others to appear to confirm the belief
Unjustifiable(negative) attitude toward a group and its members
Generlalized belief about a group of people
"us" - people who share common identity
"them" - perceived as different from ones group
ingroup bias
favoring ones own group
scapegoat theory
Stating prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

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