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Chem Honors Chapter 1


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The science that deals w/ the materials of the universe and the changes that these materials undergo
Anything taking up space and having mass
Rigid and has fixed vol and shape
Definite volume but no definite shape
No definite volume or shape
It depends upon amt of matter present (mass)
Does not depend on matter that is present (boiling point)
Physical Property
A characteristic that can be obsierved without changing the identity of the substance.
Physical Change
A change in the substance that does not involve the change in the identity of the substance
Chemical Property
A substance's ability to undergo changes that will transform it into a new substance
Chemical change
A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
Variable composition
Homogeneous Mixtures
Same throughout (solution)
Heterogeneous Mixtures
Contains regions that have different properties from those of other regions
Pure substance
Always has the same composition
E lements
Cann not be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or phhysical means Ex. Carbon
A cmpound can be broken down into elements by chemical means (water, ozone)
5 physical, 5 Chemical Examples
Physical: Breaking, Bending, cutting, boiling, freezing
Chemical: Egg, Burning, Digesting, Rusting, tarnishing?
Non organic compounds, not carbon containing
Properties, changes, and relationships between energy and matter
Identification of components and composition of materials
the study of substances and processes occuring in living things
Theoretical chem
Use of mathematics and comps to design and predict properties of new compounds
Basic Research
Used for obtaining info, obtaining the properties of teflon
Applied Research
Used for solving a specific problem, new compounds to replace refrigerants in the ozone
Technological development
Used for creating new products, , computers
Any substance that has a definite composition
Amount of 3 dimensional space an object occupies
A measure of the amount of matter
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
A pure substance made of only 1 kind of attom
A substance made from the atoms of 2 or more elements that are chemically bonded
smallest unit of an element or compound that retains all of the properties of that element or compound
Change of sate
Is the physical change of a substance from one state to another
Law of conservation of energy
After using energy, its not destroyed or recreated, it just takes another form
Difference of mixtures from pure substances
1. Every sample of a given pure sub has exactly the same characteristic properties
2. Every sample has the exactly the same composition
Order of grades
Technical, FCC, NF, CP/USP, ACS

Fcc= food chem code
NF=national formulary
CP= chemically pure
USP= US pharmacopoeia
ACS=American Chem society
Hand seperation
Uses diff sizes to its advantage, uses one's hand to take apart
Uses filter paper, residue= stuff left in funnel
filtrate=smaller particles
Seperating funnel
uses ;solubility' need 2 non mixing liquids, open bottom, let out, discard middle, etc
different boiling points, heat to vapor, go in tube, condense,
uses mass and centrifugal foce
spins, take solvent that dissolves b, thake, take out
chroma tography
used to seperate inks

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