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Ch 7 Cognitive Psychology


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What is the difference between Natural Concepts and Logical Concepts?
With Logical Concepts, all properties need to be included. With Nature Concepts, there is no defining feature but there are similiarities
What are Propositional Representations?
Propositional representations are based on simple language like units called propositions that become tied together
What are Mental Models?
Images produced by the mind to give a graphic understanding of how things work
What is the Method of Loci?
AKA Method of Place. It is a kind of mnemonic link system. A method to aid in the memory of a long sequence of ideas by mentally establishing a flow through the environment that brings attention to the landmarks in a particular order.
How does Formal reasoning differ from everyday reasoning?
All the required information is supplied and there is usually only one answer
How does Everyday reasoning differ from Formal reasoning?
Information may be missing or left unsaid and there may be several possible answers
Which type of reasoning is used for planning, making commitments and evaluating arguments?
Everday Reasoning
Whihc type of reasoning is used for solving logic and mathematics problems?
Formal Reasoning
How does the Illusionary-Knowledge Effect Work?
We have a tendency to assume we knew information that we have only just recently acquired.
What is is called when we base our decisions on what we think will yeild the most benefit?
Expected Utility
What are heuristics?
A set of mental rules that permit us to make decisions and judgements in a rapid and efficient manner.
What are the differences between availability heuristics, representative heuristics and anchoring-and-adjustment heuisitcs?
Availability "how readily it comes to mind"
Representativeness "like object get categoried together"
Anchoring-and-adjustment "starting with a reference point"
What is the definition of the problem solving method in which possible solutions are tried until one succeeds?
Trial and Error
What is the definition of the problem solving method where a solution will be found by a logical step-by-step procedure in a finite number of steps?
What is a strategy for solving problems based on applying solutions that were previously successful to other problems similiar in underlying structure
What method of solving problems depends on mental manipulation of information rather than overt trial and error, and produces sudden solutions to problems
What kind of problem solving is geared towards solution-focused thinking rather than on problem-focused thinking?
Metacognitive Processing
What kind of problem solving involves using unconventional or apparently illogical means rather than using traditionally logical approach?
Lateral Thinking
What is the difference between functional fixedness and mental set?
FUNCTIONal FIXEDness is the inability to use OBJECT in an unusual way. Mental set being stuck in a PATTERN OF THINKING you cannot go out of.
Damage to the prefrontal cortex is associated with what difficulties?
Making plans and executing behaviour necessary to achieve goals
What is the definition of responses that involve interaction between subjective feelings and objective experiences such that they imply how we feel?
What is the the definition of diffuse and long lasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupt thought and behaviour
What are two common mistrakes that people make when trying to regulate mood?
Thought suppression and rumination.
What is the definition of the attempt to not respond or think at all
Thought suppression
What is the definition of thinking about, elaborating, and focussing on the undesired thoughts or feelings, which prolonge the mood
What impedes successful mood-regulating strategies such as focussed problem solving or distraction
What often leads to a rebound effect in which people think more about somethng after suppression than before?
Thought suppression
What is the best way to avoid problems of suppression or rumination, since it absorbs attention and temporarily helps people to stop thinking about their problems
What are the three physiological theories of emotion?
James-Lange Theory, Cannon-Bard Theory and Opponent Theory
Name that Theory: An EVENT -> Physiological AROUSAL -> INTERPRETATION of arousal -> EMOTION
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Name that Theory: An EVENT -> physiological AROUSAL and EMOTION at the SAME TIME
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Name that Theory: When one emotion is experience, the other is suppressed
Opponent Theory of Emotion
What is the name of the Cognitive Theory of Emotion?
Schacter-Singer Two Factor Theory of Emotion
Name that Theory: An EVENT -> physiological AROUSAL -> REASONING -> EMOTION
Schacter-Singer Theory
Who developed a theory of motivation/emotion that views emotions as pairs of opposites (ie fear-releif, pleasure/pain)
Richard Solomon
Name that Theory: When one emotion is experienced, the other is suppressed.
Opponent Theory
According to the Opponent Theory, repeated exposure to a stimulus causes what to happen to the intitial reaction and what to happen to the opponent process?
The initial reactions weakens and the opponent process strengthens
Name that Theory: A situation evokes both a physiological response, such as arousal, and a cognitive interpretation, or emotional label?
Schacter-Singer Two Factor Theory
What is a term used when an emotion label is derived from the wrong source?
Misattribution of arousal
This term defines when during physiological arousal caused by one event, another event is introducted resulting in the residual excitation from the first event being transfered to the second event.
Excitation transfer
The way in which we think about an event can contribute to the intensity of an emotional response as well as influence what label we place on it, this is called:
Cognitive Framing
This hemisphere of the brain plays a role in the expression and comprehension of emotion
Right hemisphere
Damage to this hemisphere of the brain results in difficulty understanding the emotional tone of another person's voice or in correctly describing emotional stress:
Right hemisphere
The extent to which an emotion is pleasant or unpleasant is called:
The intensity is often referred to as:
Activation of this hemisphere of the brain is linked to positive emotions, approach, and response to reward
Left Hemisphere
Activation of this hemisphere of the brain is linked to negative emotions, avoidance, and withdrawal from aversive stimuli
Right Hemisphere
People who experience damage to this hemisphere of the brain often develop deep depression
Left Hemisphere
People who experience damage to this hemispher of the brain often show euphoria
Right Hemisphere
These kinds of feelings result from the left hemisphere
These kinds of feeling result from the right hemisphere
Name that Theory: Fear behaviour preceded feeling in evolution.
LeDoux's Emotional Brain
Name that Theory: Emotional information is processed by the amygdala faster than by the cerebral hemispheres, which allows threatening environmental stimuli to be processed by the amygdala before any cognitive intervention, referring to an autonomic cogn
LeDoux's Emotional Brain

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